Augustus Caesar (23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) is considered the first emperor of the Roman Empire, though he himself insisted upon the title of Princeps Civitatis ("first among the citizens") and at least in theory was invested with all of his power by the Senate.
- Strategy: military (2) and production (5).
- Wonder Construct random: 40 (from 0 to 50).
- Base Attitude: 0 (from -1 to 2).
- Base Peace Weight: 8 (from 0 to 10).
- Warmonger Respect: 1 (from 0 to 2).
- Espionage Weight: 100 (from 50 to 150).
- Refuse To Talk War Threshold: 8 (from 6 to 10).
- No Tech Trade Threshold: 15 (from 5 to 20).
- Tech Trade Known Percent: 40% (from 0 to 100).
- Max Gold Trade Percent: 10% (from 5 to 20).
- Max War Rand: 200 (from 50 to 400).
- Raze City Prob: 0 (from 0 to 75).
- Build Unit Prob: 25 (from 0 to 40).
- Close Borders Attitude Change: -4 (from -4 to -2).
- Same Religion Attitude Change Limit: 3 (from 2 to 7).
- Different Religion Attitude Change: 0 (from -2 to 0).
- Favorite Civic Attitude Change Limit: 4 (from 1 to 6).
- Demand tribute will be refused when: cautious or worse.
- Request help will be refused when: cautious or worse.
- Request technology will be refused when: annoyed or worse.
- Request strategic bonus will be refused when: annoyed or worse.
- Request happiness bonus will be refused when: furious.
- Request health bonus will be refused when: furious.
- Request map will be refused when: annoyed or worse.
- Request declare war will be refused when: pleased or worse.
- Request declare war them will be refused when: cautious or worse.
- Request stop trading will be refused when: cautious or worse.
- Request stop trading them will be refused when: annoyed or worse.
- Request adopt civic will be refused when: cautious or worse.
- Request convert religion will be refused when: cautious or worse.
- Request open borders will be refused when: furious.
- Request defensive pact will be refused when: pleased or worse.
- Request permanent alliance will be refused when: pleased or worse.
- Request vassal will be refused when: pleased or worse.
- Max War Nearby Power Ratio: 100 (from 80 to 130).
- Max War Distant Power Ratio: 50 (from 30 to 100).
- Max War Min Adjacent Land Percent: 1 (from 0 to 4).
- Limited War Rand: 100 (from 40 to 200).
- Limited War Power Ratio: 100 (from 80 to 130).
- Dogpile War Rand: 100 (from 25 to 100).
- Make Peace Rand: 40 (from 10 to 80).
- Demand Rebuked Sneak Prob: 60 (from 0 to 100).
- Demand Rebuked War Prob: 25 (from 0 to 50).
- Base Attack Odds Change: 0 (from 0 to 6).
- Worse Rank Difference Attitude Change: -1 (from -3 to 0).
- Better Rank Difference Attitude Change: 1 (from 0 to 4).
- Share War Attitude Change Limit: 3 (from 2 to 4).
- Vassal Power Modifier: 20 (from -20 to 50).
Born Gaius Octavius, Augustus would become the first (and possibly greatest) Roman Emperor. He ended a century of civil wars and initiated two hundred years of the Pax Romana (Roman Peace) while overseeing a golden age of Roman literature and culture. Octavius was born in 63 BC. His father (also named Gaius Octavius) was a respectable but undistinguished member of the equestrian order. His mother, however, was a niece of Julius Caesar. Octavius' father died when he was only four years old, and he was brought up in the house of his stepfather Lucius Marcus Phillippus.
At the age of fifteen, Octavius put on the toga virilis ("manly robes"), the symbol that he had reached adulthood and was elected to the College of Pontiffs. In 46 BC he joined Julius Caesar during Caesar's last campaign in Spain. In Spain he made such a fine impression on the great general that Julius Caesar changed his will to make Octavius his heir. When Caesar was murdered on the Ides of March in 44 BC, all the wealth that Caesar had spent a lifetime accumulating passed into the hands of the 18-year old Octavius. He would use them well.
At the time of Caesar's assassination, Octavius was with some of his soldiers in modern-day Albania. Upon hearing the news he went to Italy and recruited an army from among Caesar's veterans, gaining their loyalty by stressing that he was Caesar's heir. Once in Rome, Octavius allied with Marc Antony and Marcus Lepidus to form what is known as the "Second Triumvirate," directed against Caesar's killers Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius. Octavius' and Antony's armies tracked down Brutus and Cassius in Greece, where they defeated the assassins' army at Philippi (42 BC). Brutus and Cassius both committed suicide after their defeat.
Antony married Octavius' sister Octavia to cement their alliance, and the two leaders divided Rome's territory between them. Octavius took the west, while Antony went to the east, where he entered into a torrid affair with Cleopatra, the ruler of Egypt. Octavius saw Antony's actions as an insult to his sister and to his family, and relations between the co-rulers soon soured. While Antony enjoyed the pleasures of Egypt, back in Rome Octavius strengthened his political position and his armies. The two eventually went to war, and in 31 BC Octavius defeated the forces of Antony and Cleopatra at the naval battle of Actium. The lovers were pursued to Egypt, where they both committed suicide.
Octavius was now the undisputed master of Rome. He surrendered his extraordinary powers to the Senate, which was filled with his allies. In return the Senate named him "Augustus" (one who is marked by dignity and greatness) and showered him with honors. More importantly, they also gave him the powers of a Roman consul, tribune, and censor, which had never before been combined into one office. All permanent legal power within Rome officially remained within the Senate - but since Octavius controlled the senate, this was mostly a legal fiction. Although he had all of the power of an Emperor, Augustus preferred to style himself "Princeps," or "first citizen" (probably to avoid further antagonizing the remaining republicans in Rome).
During his reign Augustus presided over four decades of peace and prosperity, a welcome relief to Rome after almost a century of civil strife. He carried out a great building program in the ancient city, constructing a new Senate house as well as great temples to Apollo and "Divine Julius" (his deceased great-uncle). Later, Augustus would boast - with justification - that he had found Rome a city of brick and left it marble. Under his patronage many of the most famous Roman authors and poets created their great works: Virgil, Ovid, Horace, and Livy all flourished during his reign.
Augustus' generals also enjoyed great success and were quite relieved to be once again turning their military strength against external enemies instead of one another. Rome's borders were extended to the Danube, northern Spain was finally conquered, and Armenia was pacified in the east. By Augustus' death in 14 AD, a return to the old system of the Republic was unthinkable. He was peacefully succeeded by the Emperor Tiberius, and for more than two centuries the Roman Empire would dominate the Mediterranean without any major wars - due in large part to the wise statesmanship of Augustus.