The Canadians' civilization ability is Four Faces of Peace, which prevents them from declaring or being the target of Surprise Wars and declaring war on city-states. They also receive Diplomatic Favor bonuses for every 100 Tourism they generate and every Emergency and Scored Competition they complete. Their unique unit is the Mountie, and their unique tile improvement is the Ice Hockey Rink.
- 1 Strategy
- 1.1 The Last Best West
- 1.1.1 Farms can be built on Tundra, Farms and Camps on Tundra grant extra Food
- 1.1.2 Lumber Mills and Mines on Tundra and Snow grant extra Production
- 1.1.3 Discount on purchasing Snow and Tundra tiles
- 1.1.4 Faster Strategic Resource accumulation on Snow and Tundra tiles
- 1.1.5 Setting up for National Parks and a cultural victory
- 1.2 Four Faces of Peace
- 1.3 Ice Hockey Rink
- 1.4 Mountie
- 1.5 Victory Types
- 1.6 Counter Strategy
- 1.1 The Last Best West
- 2 Civilopedia entry
- 3 Cities
- 4 Citizens
- 5 Trivia
- 6 Gallery
- 7 Videos
- 8 Related achievements
- 9 External links
Canada is a civilization that does not only survive, but thrive, in the Tundra no other civilizations can use. They want to extend the olive branch, and foster peace among the world's citizens, but warmongers will feel the anger of the True North during diplomatic Emergencies.
The Last Best West
After numerous buffs and tweaks, this ability, from being one of the most useless leader abilities in the game, has now become one of the best, since it allows Canada to settle and prosper in areas where most civilizations want to avoid.
This "bonus" when Gathering Storm was first released was the absolute worst leader ability Civilization VI had to offer, since it did not always act as a bonus. For new players, it was entirely a trap to bait you into needlessly expending your resources and then punishing you for that. Tundra Farms used to be worthless tiles with 2 Food and 0.5 Housing, a miserable trade for your valuable build charges.
After the latest buff in the April 2021 Update, Tundra Farms now grant 4 Food each, twice what it used to be and even more fertile than a standard Grassland Farm. With the Housing on top, your Tundra cities can grow quickly and potentially much taller than any other civilizations can on this terrain, including Russia. Later in the game, with Feudalism, Tundra Farms in a triangle can grant 5 Food, and adjacent Farms on other terrains can be used to create the triangular formation. This amount of Food can even go higher with Replaceable Parts, where each Farm will gain 1 extra Food per adjacent Farm.
If you somehow are still worrying about your Tundra cities starving, Canadian Tundra Camps also gain an extra of 2 Food each. On Tundra tiles, Camps can be used to improve either Furs (not guaranteed to exist, and since it is a luxury resource, will only appear on one continent) or Deer (quite prevalent as a bonus resource on Tundra). A source of Deer in Woods on a Hills tile is worth 1 Food and 3 Production; when improved, such a Deer Camp will grant 3 Food, 3 Production and 2 Gold. If Dance of the Aurora pantheon is gone, you can consider picking up Goddess of the Hunt to further buff up your Camps. Considering how prevalent Deer is on Tundra, prioritize it when looking for a settling spot, as it will provide an excellent source of growth and Production for your cities.
As for Wonders, the Temple of Artemis can be very powerful for your capital. Remember that aside from the Amenities it grants (which you may likely lack due to Tundra being so resource-poor), it also grants +4 Food and +3 Housing, helping its parent city grow even bigger on such a barren terrain.
Lumber Mills and Mines on Tundra and Snow grant extra Production
With their boosted Mines, Canada can have a pretty nice head start on Production, which they can continue until Lumber Mills are unlocked later (you can remove these Lumber Mills later when National Parks are available). A standard Mine on Snow or Tundra of Canada can yield 3 Production, compared to the standard 1 Production, and can still scale upward like normal at Apprenticeship and Industrialization, while a Canadian Tundra Lumber Mill (Lumber Mills can never exist on Snow) can provide 4 Production (compared to the standard 2 Production) on top of the Production provided by the Woods feature on that tile. Lumber Mills can also scale with technological research, but only with Steel (Modern Era) and Cybernetics (Future Era). These scaling points don't matter too much, since as Canada, your Culture is always miles ahead of your Science, so you will most likely remove your Lumber Mills to make space for your National Parks long before you reach these technologies.
With these first two aspects of Wilfrid's ability, Canada finally feels like a Tundra civilization. Their cities on these terrains will have absolutely no problem growing and becoming productive, thanks to the boosted yields of Farms, Camps, Mines and Lumber Mills. This makes Builders a high priority for Canada, as they need Farm triangles and diamonds to grow new cities and Mines to make them productive. Mines are the immediate solution to a new Tundra city's Production issues, but Hills will not always be available. Thus, the answer lies in Lumber Mills and beelining the Conservation civic. Conservation is doubly important for Canada, as not only does it allow Canada to create their own Production through Lumber Mills (and surrounding any Industrial Zones with them), but also allows them to create National Parks wherever they want in the often-featureless Tundra.
Unfortunately, unlike Russia, Canada has no protection against Blizzards, which will probably ravage your cities more than a few times if you do commit to full Tundra cities. Try to keep some Builders ready in reserve to go around and fix damaged improvements. It also may trigger a prompt to start a Request Aid competition for yourself, which can sometimes be a good idea: it gives your competitors a chance to catch up to you in Diplomatic Victory, but if you are significantly ahead of anyone else in Diplomatic Victory or feel that there is more than enough time and future World Congresses to catch up, there's no downside to getting free Gold that would have been used to fund another player's victory type.
Discount on purchasing Snow and Tundra tiles
While it is nice to have land purchase discount, especially in the early game when you need to expand and improve tiles, this bonus, sadly, only applies to Snow and Tundra. Under almost no circumstances in the early game do you have a reason to purchase a Snow tile, because it has no resources other than Oil and Uranium, which unlock after the Modern Era. By this time, tile purchase discount is a nice touch but no longer as relevant. You may still purchase a few Tundra tiles if they contain a resource or Woods (which can be improved with a Lumber Mill), or sometimes when you need extra space to create a Farm triangle, but other than that, spending Gold to acquire 1 Food tiles in the early game is rarely worth it. Once Mounties are unlocked, this ability can be useful in allowing you to settle cities for National Parks and rapidly expand their territory even with a weak economy.
Faster Strategic Resource accumulation on Snow and Tundra tiles
As cool as it sounds to be able to accumulate strategic resources faster, since you usually have no incentives to build Encampments as Canada, your stockpile cap is often low, and because you do not want to mass build units for military conquests, accumulating resources faster often boils down to only one benefit: trade. Even that, trading strategic resources is not as a reliable source of income as luxury resources, as it also depends on your partner's own stock limit and availability of the resource to them, so every so often, your resources will just end up in a stockpile with little purpose. This ability can be more useful after you unlock Industrialization, when you discover Coal to fuel your Coal Power Plants. However, considering that Canada is a civilization with a diplomatic edge, discharging a lot of carbon into the atmosphere will result in Diplomatic Favor penalty, so you will not feel the full usefulness of this aspect until you unlock Oil Power Plants, or, if you want to be even "greener", Nuclear Power Plants. Sometimes, this comes in handy when you feel the need to go to war to eliminate an enemy who is closer to Victory than you or joining emergencies. Most late-game units require per-turn resource maintenance, double extraction rate means double the army size that has no combat penalty due to the lack of resource maintenance.
Setting up for National Parks and a cultural victory
Because Canada is reliant on National Parks, they will require a wide empire. In the Government Plaza, the Ancestral Hall is the best first choice, as free Builders are invaluable. A newly settled Tundra city should try to have a few things as soon as possible: a Farm triangle, some way of getting Production (whether that be through Mines or Lumber Mills), and spots laid out for a Theatre Square, Ice Hockey Rink and National Park. Deer Camps are very helpful for cities lucky enough to have them, otherwise they can optionally build Entertainment Complexes and Commercial Hubs/Harbors after these are complete.
For Canada's pantheon, Dance of the Aurora should be the prime choice if available; it not only provides Faith for tourism, but also Production for early expansion if combined with the Work Ethic belief. If a religion is not on your agenda, (different from other cultural civilizations, Canada is not reliant on Faith) Goddess of the Hunt is an excellent consistent choice as Deer is the single most common resource in Tundra and makes Canada's Tundra Deer Camps even stronger. As with all civilizations, Religious Settlements and Divine Spark (if they are still available by the time your pantheon is unlocked, as Canada has no consistent way of generating Faith on turn 1) are great generalist choices.
Once all the important Medieval prerequisites are unlocked, you should go for Colonialism for Ice Hockey Rinks, then Conservation for Mounties. These Civics are on the same branch of the Civic tree. Once Conservation is unlocked, you should start building Mounties, to establish National Parks, and Builders, to create Forests which increase tile Appeal and allow you to place National Parks in new locations. It is worthwhile to look at how Appeal is calculated. It is also useful to consider where you may want parks later when settling and placing districts—regions with lots of Mountains and Forests, for example, will require much less work than thick Rainforests. Without using Builders to place Forests and Ice Hockey Rinks to increase Appeal, you will not be able to place nearly as many National Parks, and those you do place will be slightly weaker, so be sure to use them so you can take full advantage of this strong boost. This National Park focus also goes well with the Wish You Were Here Golden Age Dedication. Placing lots of National Parks, at +3 Era Score each, helps ensure a Golden Age, and this Dedication doubles your main source of Tourism for a massive boost.
Assuming you are going on the cultural path, consider trying to get the Eiffel Tower—while its technology, Steel, is on the "awkward" side of the tech tree for cultural civilizations, it is extremely powerful for Canada. Not only does it give +8 Tourism per National Park, but it also enables you to build National Parks in locations you could not before. There are no other wonders that become uniquely better because of Canada's specific abilities and starting bias, although if you are going for a Scientific Victory, you will probably be more likely than anyone else in the game to build the Amundsen-Scott Research Station. Therefore, build other Wonders when you see good opportunities to, but remember that aside from Eiffel Tower, none of them truly affect a Cultural win condition.
Four Faces of Peace
Immunity from Surprise Wars and cannot declare Surprise Wars
The fact that you are immune to Surprise Wars has next to no effect on multiplayer games, but can guarantee your safety to build up your core territory in single player (Builders). This also means that Canada completely negates Cyrus' leader ability. However, this boon does come with downsides as you cannot quickly steal unprotected Settlers, or take out an easy city-state target. There is a way to circumvent the prohibition to declaring wars without Denouncing the opponent, and that is by using Joint Wars! All you need is a third party sufficiently disgruntled with your target to have had already Denounced them. If used smartly, this will nullify the prohibition.
Earn bonus Diplomatic Favor from Tourism and Emergencies
You also gain 1% of your Tourism as Diplomatic Favor, which is rather late and trivial. Accumulating at least 100 Tourism can only be achieved once the Industrial Era is reached, and Canada has no bonuses towards this prior to the Industrial Era. It is worthwhile to check the National Park page to understand how much Tourism each Park can theoretically generate, as National Parks are Canada's main method of generating Diplomatic Favor from Tourism. This becomes strong very late in the game, often doubling (or more) your Diplomatic Favor per turn, but unfortunately, this is not a huge boost at this point. Favor from Emergencies is generally stronger, so try your best to use it. Spend your Diplomatic Favor generously whenever an Emergency comes up, like Aid Request, or civilization and city-state liberation emergencies. Focus on Aid Requests; this is your main gold mine of Diplomatic Favor because it is guaranteed to happen every game (especially on hyperreal climate setting), it is easy to satisfy the participation rule and it is the easiest one for you to win. Canada is also much safer than other civilizations in pursuing Aid Requests, as they cannot be surprise warred. In all other emergencies, you either need a large standing army, or a religion, or the location of the city that needs to be liberated has to be favorable to you, none of which you will want to go out of your way for.
Ice Hockey Rink
As of the final patch of the game, the Ice Hockey Rink, once a nigh-useless unique improvement, becomes integral to Canada's cultural prowess and ability to thrive in Tundra. Prior to the buffs, the Ice Hockey Rink forced Canada players to settle useless land for the sole benefit of placing this unique improvement. As already explained, Canada's Tundra bonuses are no longer something to scoff at, and as such, placing this unique improvement is now much less of a chore than it is the cherry on top of Canada's bonuses.
Tundra is a very consistent and common type of terrain, unlike Plains and Grassland, which can often randomly overlap or end abruptly, which makes placing the Ice Hockey Rink and getting the maximum +6 Culture from surrounding Tundra and Snow tiles incredibly easy. As each city may only place one Ice Hockey Rink, an ideal setup is to place an Entertainment Complex within the range of 3 cities, as you will be building a Stadium later to raise the adjacency to +10 Culture, place your Ice Hockey Rinks around the Entertainment Complex, but not adjacent to one another, and those cities' Theater Squares in the other spaces to further raise your Tourism.
It should be expected that you will not have the perfect setup every time, and as such, Ice Hockey Rinks also have another, less obvious bonus: they provide 2 Appeal to adjacent tiles. Strategically place these in locations adjacent where you plan to place National Parks, and then once you have Conservation, you have the freedom of using your Builders to place more Woods and raise your Appeal even further everywhere, and the Mountie to realize those parks.
This unit is not usable in conquest, only to defend. (The real life Mountie is a police unit, after all.) Remember to keep this fact in mind when prioritizing what promotions to give such units. Compared to a standard Cavalry, it is available later and more expensive; even then, whether or not it will do a good job on defense is not reliable until later, as your enemies can try to avoid attacking cities with National Parks.
However, the Mountie is an incredible unit that allows Canada to establish many National Parks without needing a good Faith income. After the huge cost reduction introduced in the April 2021 Update, the Mountie becomes the much more cost efficient version of the Naturalist, even without taking into consideration the fact that it can be built with Production instead of only purchasable with Faith, and does not go away after using all of its build charges. Every National Park established by the Naturalist costs 600 Faith, which is equivalent to 300 Production. Meanwhile, a Mountie has 2 build charges and costs only 290 Production, which means every National Park established by a Mountie receives a 50% discount in cost compared to the Naturalist's National Parks. It is still a good idea to slot in Lightning Warfare (which is hidden at Ideology) to aid with its Production, as the Mountie is a standalone unit that cannot be upgraded into. Even if you do have a strong Faith economy, you can use the thousands of Faith you will save to buy Rock Bands, boosting your late game Tourism on top of your National Parks.
Once all the important Medieval prerequisites are unlocked, you should go for Colonialism for Ice Hockey Rinks, then Conservation for Mounties. These Civics are on the same branch of the Civic tree. Once Conservation is unlocked, you should start building Mounties, to establish National Parks, and Builders, to create Woods which increase tile Appeal and allow you to place National Parks in new locations. It is worthwhile to look at how Appeal is calculated. It is also useful to consider where you may want parks later when settling and placing districts—regions with lots of Mountains and Woods, for example, will require much less work than thick Rainforests. Without using Builders to place Woods and Ice Hockey Rinks to increase Appeal, you will not be able to place nearly as many National Parks, and those you do place will be slightly weaker, so be sure to use them so you can take full advantage of this strong boost. For this reason, cards like Serfdom and Public Works are must-haves for much of the game. This National Park focus also goes well with the Wish You Were Here Golden Age Dedication. Placing lots of National Parks, at +3 Era Score each, helps ensure a Golden Age, and this Dedication doubles your main source of Tourism for a massive boost.
Consider trying to build the Eiffel Tower—while its technology, Steel, is on the "awkward" side of the tech tree for cultural civilizations, it is extremely powerful for Canada. Not only does it give +8 Tourism per National Park, it will enable you to build National Parks in locations you could not before. The Eiffel Tower should be prioritized over Mounties, as Mounties cannot be upgraded into or made obsolete by Synthetic Materials, which would usually make Cavalry obsolete in favor of Helicopters, giving Canada all the time in the world to go after the top half of the tech tree (specifically the 25% empire-wide boost to Tourism at Computers).
Canada's main path of Victory will be Cultural through National Parks as you can effectively build better Naturalists with Production or Gold instead of Faith, so as long as you have the spots for new National Parks (or are willing to create them), and are not limited by resource to establish it, unlike other civs. Diplomatic Victory is also viable, although Canada's main method of getting Diplomatic Favor, Tourism, is likely to win you a Culture Victory first if it's high enough to be useful. In regards to National Parks, try to be active with your gameplay by planning your National Park locations and planting Woods after Conservation instead of relying on map generation to align perfectly for you.
You can also go for an unorthodox victory like Domination (which makes faster resource accumulation actually useful and completing liberation emergencies more plausible). If you wish to try for a Science Victory, try to participate & make at least a strong showing in the competitions that give a boost directly or indirectly to your science efforts, in particular the World's Fair, the Nobel Prize in Physics, and the International Space Station.
Canada is a late game focused civilization that has no weapon to defend themselves from aggressive neighbors. In terms of gameplay, they are like America, but with weaker early game, since they have no real defensive capabilities. Picking on Canada in the early game is very easy, although you cannot declare a Surprise War on them, the minimum number of turns (5) between denouncing and war declaration is barely enough for them to put together an army, and Canada is often under a false impression that they are unaffected by war, so it is generally easier to catch them off guard. Also, if you can see another civilization who is already at war with Canada, you can gain somewhat the element of surprise by joining in without denouncing them first, thus bypassing their immunity. Do not denounce them too early if you have no intention to attack them immediately 5 turns after, since it will put them in a defensive mode. The fact that Canada cannot declare Surprise War either means you are safe next to them unless there is a denunciation. Also, you can safely invest your Envoy into City-states next to Canada, since unless they are at war with the Suzerain, they can never conquest these City-states.
In terms of their extra Diplomatic Favor, competing in Competitions and Emergencies is their bread and butter, as they earn far more Diplomatic Favor from these than from Tourism, so this should be your priority target. Voting down so that the Competitions and Emergencies cannot go ahead is one way, but sometimes this is tough since other civilizations may want these to proceed, but there are multiple ways you can mess with Canada so they cannot win. Declaring war and harassing them with military units is one way, since they will have to put out units of their own to respond, instead of running Competition projects. If you want to avoid war, or are too far from Canada to do anything, you can help the emergency target (in any emergencies that are not Aid Requests), try to outperform Canada yourself, or help a close rival of Canada in those Competitions.
There have been people living in Canada since before recorded time. Archaeological evidence shows the first groups of hunters crossed into Canada from Siberia during the Wisconsin glaciation, then spread east and southward over time. As the climate stabilized, the indigenous groups diversified and specialized to their geographic regions. These aboriginal inhabitants (now called “First Nations” in Canada) included nations as diverse as the Cree, Hopewell, Inuit, Tlingit, Ojibwa, Haida, and Mi'kmaq, as well as countless other bands and nations over the ages.
First contact between the First Nations and Europeans was when the Vikings created small settlements along the Atlantic, though these settlements eventually failed, and control of the land reverted to the First Nations. John Cabot, sailing from England, arrived off the Atlantic provinces in 1497, but the first colonization efforts focused mainly on the rich offshore fisheries, rather than the mainland.
The French explorer Jacques Cartier claimed “Canada” in the name of Francis I in 1534, injecting French presence into what had previously been a mix of English and Portuguese claims into the area. Cartier attempted permanent French colonies at a number of locations, starting in 1541, and by the turn of the 17th Century, there were French trade and fishing settlements throughout the area, effectively cementing French control of the Canadian mainland.
The lucrative fur trade fueled the early colony through a robust system of trade with the First Nations and exploration and settlement of the St. Lawrence River region. During this time, the legendary coureurs des bois and voyageurs plied their canoes into the interior of the nation, establishing strong ties between the First Nations and the colonists from France. Intermarriage between settlers and First Nations led to a rising group of Metis—persons of mixed ancestry—whose interactions with the colonial government and First Nations would play important parts through Canadian history.
Tensions between France and England in Europe led to a series of wars in Canada as well, collectively called the French and Indian Wars, as the First Nations and settlers of New France were strongly allied in Acadia (the area around the mouth of the St. Lawrence River, extending to the Great Lakes). These came to a head during the Seven Years' War, as this European conflict quickly flashed over into Canada. French settlers in the English-controlled Maritime provinces were forcibly expelled from their homes, and most relocated to Quebec, the Caribbean, or the mouth of the Mississippi river, where “Acadian” became “Cajun.” France renounced its Canadian territorial claims in 1763, leaving the region under English rule. Canada was now under one rule, but possessed two distinct settler cultures and a significant First Nations presence.
During the American War of Independence, many Loyalists moved north to settle in Canada, and the Continental Army attempted a disastrous expedition, which was thoroughly routed. In what is surely one of the earliest expressions of American military hubris, James Madison authorized a military expedition to conquer Canada during the War of 1812, with former president Thomas Jefferson saying conquest would be a “mere matter of marching.” Two years later, the White House had been burned, the Americans had been stymied all along the frontier, and the American government gratefully accepted a status quo ante border in the peace.
Armed rebellions broke out in 1837 in response to a demand for political reforms and responsible government for Canada. Although the rebellions were suppressed, the British government's own report on the events recommended reforming the government of Canada. A series of incremental measures culminated in the Constitution Act of 1867, the act that created the basis of modern Canada.
The nation had continued to expand, but now the westward expansion of settlers became a flood. This brought new settlers into conflict with both First Nations and the Metis in competition for land and resources of the frontier. A series of numbered treaties with the First Nations transferred land for settlement, with the government making only token effort to honor the treaties, if not breaking them outright. The First Nations had undergone transformation through their interaction with the settlers, but this new flood threated to end traditional ways of living. The largest and most important conflict of this period was the North-West Rebellion in 1885. This rebellion by the Metis and their First Nation allies was an effort to secure political autonomy, led by the visionary Metis leader Louis Riel.
The Rebellion was suppressed, but the conflict had deepened long-existing divisions between Francophone and English-speaking Canadians. Minority groups (Francophone communities, the First Nations, and the Metis) saw the rising tide of dominant English Canadian culture as a threat to their own cultures, and in fairness, there was a strong tendency by the English Canadians to dismiss the minority groups as retrograde holdovers if not actively erase the groups. The matter is not entirely resolved to this day, although Canadians have made laudable efforts to debate this amongst themselves in a spirit of justice and dignity.
During World War I and World War II, Canada was one of the staunchest pillars of the Commonwealth forces in terms of human and material support, though conscription was deeply unpopular at home during both wars. After the World War II, Canada was an enthusiastic participant in international diplomatic efforts (Prime Minister Lester Pearson was awarded the Nobel Prize for his effort to resolve the Suez Crisis through the young United Nations).
The relatively young nation of Canada is the largest nation by size in North America. Its citizens have repeatedly chosen unity in a Canadian identity over a balkanization over ethnic and linguistic lines, even as they continue to work through the conflicts of Canada's history. We apologize that the scope of the Civilopedia does not allow us to recognize the nation's achievements in full, nor discuss its past in deeper detail. Sorry!
- Main article: Canadian cities (Civ6)
|Males||Females||Modern males||Modern females|
- The Canadian civilization's symbol is a maple leaf, a national symbol of Canada that appears on the Canadian flag.
- The Canadian civilization ability references Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson's speech after being awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957 (which can be read in its entirety here).
- The last two sentences of the Civilopedia entry ("We apologize that the scope of the Civilopedia does not allow us to recognize the nation's achievements in full, nor discuss its past in deeper detail. Sorry!") are a reference to the stereotype of Canadians saying "sorry" a lot.
- Canada is the only nation in Civilization VI and its expansions whose theme music contains its real-world national anthem ("O Canada"). Gaul has a national anthem in its main theme, but "La Brabançonne" is the Belgian national anthem, as the Gauls were not closely organized enough to have a national anthem.
- Before the Canadian civilization was released, the Canadian city of Toronto was a city-state. After Canada's release, Toronto became one of the Canadian cities, and it was replaced by Mexico City.
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