The Canadians' civilization ability is Four Faces of Peace, which prevents them from declaring or being the target of Surprise Wars and declaring war on city-states. They also receive Diplomatic Favor bonuses for every 100 Tourism they generate and every Emergency and Scored Competition they complete. Their unique unit is the Mountie, and their unique tile improvement is the Ice Hockey Rink.
Canada is a culture and diplomacy focused civilization who favors a peaceful and rather passive gameplay, with wars only coming into play during special emergencies.
The Last Best West
This is Canada's weakest bonus, which can be broken into three parts, none of which is significant enough to have much of an impact. First and foremost, Tundra Farms are very weak and building them is generally inadvisable, even if you are allowed to. Even after Feudalism is unlocked, the Food gain you have is equal to a Grassland empire without Feudalism. Therefore, remember, it is not worth building Tundra Farms before Feudalism, and even when you unlock this Civic, don't go overboard with it. With Feudalism, it can also be used to finish off a triangle whose other two tiles are Grassland or Plains, using the Tundra tile just for adjacency. Second, it is nice to have land purchase discount, especially in the early game when you need to expand and improve tiles, but this bonus, sadly, only applies to Snow and Tundra. Under almost no circumstances in the early game do you have a reason to purchase a Snow tile, because it has no resources other than Oil and Uranium, which unlock after the Modern Era. By this time, tile purchase discount is no longer relevant. The only possible exception to this might be where you wish to build Forts in-territory to better guard potential enemy incursion routes, or else perhaps want to assert control over a strategic bit of coastline. You may still purchase a few Tundra tiles if they contain a resource you need, but other than that, spending Gold to acquire 1 Food tiles is rarely worth it. Once Mounties are unlocked, this ability can be useful in allowing you to settle cities for national parks and rapidly expand their territory even with a weak economy. Finally, you can accumulate strategic resources faster. Not more, though—just faster. Since you usually have no incentives to build Encampments as Canada, your stockpile cap is often low, and because you do not want to mass build units for military conquests, accumulating resources faster often boils down to only one benefit: trade. Even that, trading strategic resources is not as a reliable source of income as luxury resources, as it also depends on your partner's own stock limit and availability of the resource to them, so every so often, your resources will just end up in a stockpile with little purpose. Overall, this states a glaring problem with Canada, they are given an unfavorable starting terrain with their thematic infrastructure tying strongly to it, but equipped with no functioning tool to make survival in Snow and Tundra any more bearable.
Following numerous buffs to this ability to make it more useful, it now provides extra yields to certain improvements on Tundra and Snow tiles: Mines and Lumber Mills receive extra Production and Camps extra Food. It makes early polar settlements a little bit more bearable (well, kind of), but still, despite high Production these cities may have from Mines and Lumber Mills, finding sources of Food for them early on is still a conundrum, as Camps on Snow or Tundra can only be built on Deer and Furs tiles, which is, by no means, abundant. It is still a good idea to settle fertile land first, build up powerful core cities and use these to support later Tundra and Snow settlements. Read more information below on how to use Ice Hockey Rink improvement.
Four Faces of Peace
The fact that you are immune to Surprise Wars and city-states has next to no effect on multiplayer games, but can guarantee your safety to build up your core territory in single player. It does not come without downside, however, as you cannot quickly steal unprotected Settlers, or take out an easy city-state target. Next, you gain 1% of your Tourism as Diplomatic Favor, which is rather late and trivial. Accumulating at least 100 Tourism can only be achieved once the Industrial Era is reached, and Canada has no bonuses towards this prior to the Industrial Era. This gets strong very late in the game, doubling or better your Diplomatic Favor per turn, but unfortunately, this is not a huge boost at this point. Favor from Emergencies is generally stronger, so try your best to use it. Spend your Diplomatic Favor generously whenever an Emergency comes up, like Aid Request, or civilization and city-state liberation emergencies. Focus on Aid Requests; this is your main gold mine of Diplomatic Favor because it is guaranteed to happen every game (especially on hyperreal climate setting), it is easy to satisfy the participation rule and it is the easiest one for you to win. In all other emergencies, you either need a large standing army, or a religion, or the location of the city that needs to be liberated has to be favorable to you, none of which you want to go out of your way for.
There is a way to circumvent the prohibition to declaring wars without Denouncing the opponent, and that is by using Joint Wars! All you need is a third party sufficiently disgruntled with your target to have had already Denounced them. If used smartly, this way will practically nullify the prohibition.
Ice Hockey Rink
Spawning on non-Tundra terrains, as ironic as it sounds, is probably the best thing happening when you play as Canada. Generally, you'll want to grab normal, fertile land first, then get the Tundra later when there's nowhere else to go. However, you will lose the ability to use the Ice Hockey Rink entirely in many cities due to its very strict placement requirement, which begs a completely different approach to this civilization: late settlements. Just right before this improvement is unlocked in the late Industrial Era, train a lot of Settlers and settle the near polar regions. By this time, your core territory should be big enough to support these new cities by sending Trade Routes and hard buying buildings. Don't try to settle on cold areas too early, for all the reasons detailed above, just build the Ancestral Hall, promote Magnus, and prepare the late settlements of your civilization like no others. Try to find the edge between Tundra regions and Grassland/Plains regions and settle there so you can have the best of both worlds. These also have another, less obvious bonus—they provide 2 Appeal to adjacent tiles. Place these with National Parks in mind, and once Mounties are unlocked, use them to enable National Parks. Once the Stadium is unlocked, you get 4 more Culture, though in the late Atomic Era 4 Culture per city is a very minor boost.
This unit is not usable in conquest, only to defend. (The real life Mountie is a police unit, after all.) Remember to keep this fact in mind when prioritizing what promotions to give such units. Compared to a standard Cavalry, it is available later, more expensive and weaker; even then, whether or not it will do a good job on defense is not reliable until later, as your enemies can try to avoid attacking cities with National Parks. However, Mounties are one of Canada's most unique and strongest bonuses. Most civs must spend a fairly hefty 1600 Faith to found National Parks, while Canada can also spend 400 Production or 1600 Gold. This enables you to place many more National Parks than most civs, and leaves you with a weak but decent military unit. Even if you do have a strong Faith economy, you can use the thousands of Faith you will save to buy Rock Bands, boosting late game tourism on top of your National Parks. Once all the important Medieval prerequisites are unlocked, you should go for Colonialism for Ice Hockey Rinks, then Conservation for Mounties. These Civics are on the same branch of the Civic tree. Once Conservation is unlocked, you should start building Mounties, to establish National Parks, and Builders, to create Forests which increase tile Appeal and allow you to place National Parks in new locations. It is worthwhile to look at how Appeal is calculated. It is also useful to consider where you may want parks later when settling and placing districts—regions with lots of Mountains and Forests, for example, will require much less work than thick Rainforests. Without using Builders to place Forests and Ice Hockey Rinks to increase Appeal, you will not be able to place nearly as many National Parks, and those you do place will be slightly weaker, so be sure to use them so you can take full advantage of this strong boost. This National Park focus also goes well with the Wish You Were Here Golden Age Era Dedication. Placing lots of National Parks, at +3 Era Score each, helps ensure a Golden Age, and this Dedication doubles your main source of tourism for a massive boost. Finally, consider trying to get the Eiffel Tower—while its technology, Steel, is out of your way on the Tech tree, it is extremely powerful for Canada. Not only does it give +8 Tourism per National Park, but it also enables you to build National Parks in locations you couldn't before.
There are a few main things to focus on: National Parks, Aid Request emergencies, and settling Tundra later. Your main path of Victory will be Cultural through National Parks as you can effectively build better Naturalists with Production or Gold instead of Faith, so as long as you have the spots for new National Parks (or are willing to create them), you are not limited by resource to establish it, unlike other civs. Diplomatic Victory is also viable, though Canada's main method of getting Diplomatic Favor, Tourism, is likely to win you a Culture Victory first if it's high enough to be useful. Try to be active with your gameplay instead of relying on too many luck-based factors to align perfectly for you. You can also go for an unorthodox victory like Domination (which makes faster resource accumulation actually useful and completing liberation emergencies more plausible). If you wish to try for a Science Victory, one associated wonder that works reasonably well with Canada's strengths is the Amundsen-Scott Research Station. Much earlier than that, the Great Library wonder may be worth considering. Also, try to participate & make at least a strong showing in those competitions that give a boost directly or indirectly to your science efforts, in particular the World's Fair, the Nobel Prize in Physics, and the International Space Station. Attempting to gain the loyalty of as many Scientific type City-States as possible is another good idea.
There have been people living in Canada since before recorded time. Archaeological evidence shows the first groups of hunters crossed into Canada from Siberia during the Wisconsin glaciation, then spread east and southward over time. As the climate stabilized, the indigenous groups diversified and specialized to their geographic regions. These aboriginal inhabitants (now called “First Nations” in Canada) included nations as diverse as the Cree, Hopewell, Inuit, Tlingit, Ojibwa, Haida, and Mi'kmaq, as well as countless other bands and nations over the ages.
First contact between the First Nations and Europeans was when the Vikings created small settlements along the Atlantic, though these settlements eventually failed, and control of the land reverted to the First Nations. John Cabot, sailing from England, arrived off the Atlantic provinces in 1497, but the first colonization efforts focused mainly on the rich offshore fisheries, rather than the mainland.
The French explorer Jacques Cartier claimed “Canada” in the name of Francis I in 1534, injecting French presence into what had previously been a mix of English and Portuguese claims into the area. Cartier attempted permanent French colonies at a number of locations, starting in 1541, and by the turn of the 17th Century, there were French trade and fishing settlements throughout the area, effectively cementing French control of the Canadian mainland.
The lucrative fur trade fueled the early colony through a robust system of trade with the First Nations and exploration and settlement of the St. Lawrence River region. During this time, the legendary coureurs des bois and voyageurs plied their canoes into the interior of the nation, establishing strong ties between the First Nations and the colonists from France. Intermarriage between settlers and First Nations led to a rising group of Metis—persons of mixed ancestry—whose interactions with the colonial government and First Nations would play important parts through Canadian history.
Tensions between France and England in Europe led to a series of wars in Canada as well, collectively called the French and Indian Wars, as the First Nations and settlers of New France were strongly allied in Acadia (the area around the mouth of the St. Lawrence River, extending to the Great Lakes). These came to a head during the Seven Years' War, as this European conflict quickly flashed over into Canada. French settlers in the English-controlled Maritime provinces were forcibly expelled from their homes, and most relocated to Quebec, the Caribbean, or the mouth of the Mississippi river, where “Acadian” became “Cajun.” France renounced its Canadian territorial claims in 1763, leaving the region under English rule. Canada was now under one rule, but possessed two distinct settler cultures and a significant First Nations presence.
During the American War of Independence, many Loyalists moved north to settle in Canada, and the Continental Army attempted a disastrous expedition, which was thoroughly routed. In what is surely one of the earliest expressions of American military hubris, James Madison authorized a military expedition to conquer Canada during the War of 1812, with former president Thomas Jefferson saying conquest would be a “mere matter of marching.” Two years later, the White House had been burned, the Americans had been stymied all along the frontier, and the American government gratefully accepted a status quo ante border in the peace.
Armed rebellions broke out in 1837 in response to a demand for political reforms and responsible government for Canada. Although the rebellions were suppressed, the British government's own report on the events recommended reforming the government of Canada. A series of incremental measures culminated in the Constitution Act of 1867, the act that created the basis of modern Canada.
The nation had continued to expand, but now the westward expansion of settlers became a flood. This brought new settlers into conflict with both First Nations and the Metis in competition for land and resources of the frontier. A series of numbered treaties with the First Nations transferred land for settlement, with the government making only token effort to honor the treaties, if not breaking them outright. The First Nations had undergone transformation through their interaction with the settlers, but this new flood threated to end traditional ways of living. The largest and most important conflict of this period was the North-West Rebellion in 1885. This rebellion by the Metis and their First Nation allies was an effort to secure political autonomy, led by the visionary Metis leader Louis Riel.
The Rebellion was suppressed, but the conflict had deepened long-existing divisions between Francophone and English-speaking Canadians. Minority groups (Francophone communities, the First Nations, and the Metis) saw the rising tide of dominant English Canadian culture as a threat to their own cultures, and in fairness, there was a strong tendency by the English Canadians to dismiss the minority groups as retrograde holdovers if not actively erase the groups. The matter is not entirely resolved to this day, although Canadians have made laudable efforts to debate this amongst themselves in a spirit of justice and dignity.
During World War I and World War II, Canada was one of the staunchest pillars of the Commonwealth forces in terms of human and material support, though conscription was deeply unpopular at home during both wars. After the World War II, Canada was an enthusiastic participant in international diplomatic efforts (Prime Minister Lester Pearson was awarded the Nobel Prize for his effort to resolve the Suez Crisis through the young United Nations).
The relatively young nation of Canada is the largest nation by size in North America. Its citizens have repeatedly chosen unity in a Canadian identity over a balkanization over ethnic and linguistic lines, even as they continue to work through the conflicts of Canada's history. We apologize that the scope of the Civilopedia does not allow us to recognize the nation's achievements in full, nor discuss its past in deeper detail. Sorry!
- Main article: Canadian cities (Civ6)
- The Canadian civilization's symbol is a maple leaf, a national symbol of Canada that appears on the Canadian flag.
- The Canadian civilization's ability references Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson's speech after being awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957 (which can be read in its entirety here).
- The last two sentences of the Civilopedia entry ("We apologize that the scope of the Civilopedia does not allow us to recognize the nation's achievements in full, nor discuss its past in deeper detail. Sorry!") are a reference to the stereotype of Canadians saying "sorry" a lot.
The Sunny Way
Win a game as Wilfrid Laurier