Casimir III the Great (30 April 1310 – 5 November 1370), known as Kazimierz Wielki in Polish, was the last monarch of Poland from the Piast dynasty. During his reign Poland experienced a golden age. He leads the Poles in Civilization V: Brave New World.
Casimir III speaks modern Polish with some old-fashioned words. On his diplomacy screen, he is standing on the bascule bridge in front of his castle with his royal scepter in hand. When defeated, he takes off his crown.
Unique Ability: Solidarity
Voice Actor: Alek Lubczynski
|Wonder Competitiveness||5 (7-3)|
|City-State Influence Competitiveness||6 (8-4)|
|Hate Warmongers||7 (9-5)|
|Willingness to Denounce||4 (6-2)|
|Willingness to Declare Friendship||6 (8-4)|
|Offensive Unit Production||7 (9-5)|
|Defensive Unit Production||4 (6-2)|
|Defensive Building Production||7 (9-5)|
|Military Training Buildings Production||8 (10-6)|
|Recon Unit Production||7 (9-5)|
|Ranged Unit Production||3 (5-1)|
|Mobile Unit Production||8 (10-6)|
|Naval Unit Production||5 (7-3)|
|Naval Recon Unit Production||3 (5-1)|
|Air Unit Production||6 (8-4)|
|Naval Growth||3 (5-1)|
|Naval Tile Improvements||5 (7-3)|
|Water Connections||4 (6-2)|
|Tile Improvements||6 (8-4)|
|Infrastructure (Roads)||5 (7-3)|
|Production Emphasis||8 (10-6)|
|Gold Emphasis||7 (9-5)|
|Science Emphasis||4 (6-2)|
|Culture Emphasis||6 (8-4)|
|Happiness Emphasis||6 (8-4)|
|Great People Emphasis||5 (7-3)|
|Wonder Emphasis||6 (8-4)|
|Religion Emphasis||7 (9-5)|
|Diplomacy Victory||6 (8-4)|
|Spaceship Victory||6 (8-4)|
|Nuke Production||5 (7-3)|
|Use of Nukes||4 (6-2)|
|Use of Espionage||5 (7-3)|
|Anti-Air Production||7 (9-5)|
|Air Carrier Production||5 (7-3)|
|Land Trade Route Emphasis||5 (7-3)|
|Sea Trade Route Emphasis||5 (7-3)|
|Archaeology Emphasis||5 (7-3)|
|Trade Origin Emphasis||5 (7-3)|
|Trade Destination Emphasis||5 (7-3)|
|Airlift Emphasis||5 (7-3)|
|Likeliness to Declare War||6 (8-4)|
|Likeliness to be Hostile||5 (7-3)|
|Likeliness to be Deceptive||3 (5-1)|
|Likeliness to be Guarded||7 (9-5)|
|Likeliness to be Afraid||6 (8-4)|
|Likeliness to be Friendly||7 (9-5)|
|Likeliness to be Neutral||5 (7-3)|
|Ignore City-States||3 (5-1)|
|Friendliness to City-States||5 (7-3)|
|Protection of City-States||7 (9-5)|
|Conquest of City-States||5 (7-3)|
|Bullying of City-States||6 (8-4)|
Personality and Behavior
Casimir is quite a bold leader. He is very loyal and willing to declare friendship.
Casimir likes to build a strong army, consisting predominantly of infantry and fast-moving units. He is also known to be particularly keen on military training.
Even though he tends to be guarded and can often declare war, Casimir is one of the more trustworthy personalities and will hardly ever backstab.
Casimir prefers to protect city-states and will almost never ignore them. On the other hand, he may sometimes try to demand tribute from them.
King Casimir III, the only Polish king to earn the subsequent title of "the Great," reigned during the 14th century AD and established himself as a decisive and able ruler, relying on his skill in diplomacy and sensible decision-making to greatly improve the well-being of his people and security of his kingdom. Although Casimir's predecessor, his father King Wladyslaw I, was respected for having reunited the divided realm, Casimir inherited a kingdom rife with challenges. In rebuilding a depleted economy, strengthening the military, codifying the law, and expanding the borders of Poland, Casimir left his country much better than he found it - and sealed his legacy as one of Poland's greatest kings. By the time of his death, Casimir III had assured the prestige and respect of Poland throughout medieval Europe.
Although the second son of Wladyslaw, Casimir was schooled in all things necessary for kingship in medieval Europe. Upon the death of Casimir's elder brother in 1312 AD, he was made heir and placed in the care of Jaroslaw, later to be archbishop of Gniezno and one of Casimir's most important advisors. When his father died 21 years later, in Kraków Casimir was crowned lord of both Great Poland and Little Poland, sanctifying the unification of Poland Wladyslaw had begun.
Not long after ascending to the throne, Casimir was forced to deal with a number of political issues, not the least the unrest of the Polish nobility. In order to strengthen Poland's military, which relied heavily on the cooperation of the Polish nobles, Casimir was forced to relinquish a number of heretofore royal privileges to the nobles themselves. The Polish aristocracy now held a clear division between themselves and the common people, and their authority in matters dealing with those of lower standing, especially the growing merchant classes, was greatly strengthened. Although Casimir was forced into a position of comprise, his actions ensured that the feudal armies of Poland could be replenished and would recognize the crown's authority.
Casimir made great strides in efforts to improve the internal state of Poland, and counterbalance the new power of the nobles, through a number of initiatives. He standardized and stabilized the currency. Casimir ordered the construction of a number of new castles, churches, and even entire towns - providing new opportunities for trade and economic prosperity. Towns long since abandoned, and even areas said to have been devoid of any form of settlement were revitalized. In March 1347 Casimir introduced legal reforms and moved to establish a unified code, the Liber juris Teutonici, for the realm to protect the rights of the fledgling middle class. In enacting a form of the Magdeburg Rights - a German concept allowing for towns to exercise a certain degree of autonomy - he provided local merchants and craftsmen with a more stable regulation of trade, encouraging them to settle in cities across the nation. A special court was established in Kraków to arbitrate in all disputes and administer the laws uniformly. Hoping to educate a new generation of capable lawyers and administers, Casimir the Great founded the Academy of Kraków, now the Jagiellonian University, in 1364 AD.
Although historians have wondered what spurred Casimir's disposition towards the Jews of Poland, it is clear that he made every effort to afford them the same rights and protection all his subjects enjoyed. In 1334, Casimir reaffirmed the charters of 1264 protecting the rights of the Polish Jews, including laws prohibiting attempts at forced conversions to Christianity that had been largely ignored under previous rulers since. Casimir also secured their rights as merchants and traders, and welcomed Jewish integration into a unified Poland with a diverse population. The desecration of Jewish cemeteries and synagogues was declared a crime and vigorously enforced.
Upon his ascension to the throne, Casimir's rule was tenuous, and disputed on all sides by foreign powers. The king of Bohemia himself claimed the Polish crown. The German Teutonic Knights had occupied the Polish territories of Kujawy and Dobrzyn in Pomerania. An undeclared, inconclusive war with Lithuania to the north threatened stability and trade in the bordering provinces. Polish claims to territories in the Ukraine were ignored by neighboring nations. To make matters worse, Poland had no allies of any importance.
Relying on his skill in diplomacy, Casimir deftly negotiated new alliances and secured additional territory for Poland. The marriage of his sister Elisabeth to the king of Hungary brought him a dependable ally; to cement this alliance Casimir dropped his claims to Silesia. The Hungarian alliance allowed Casimir to forcefully occupy the former Polish duchies of Halic and Vladimir in "Red Russia" in 1340 and 1349 AD. Meanwhile, through negotiation, a pact was forged with Bohemia and its king dropped all claims to the Polish throne. This, in turn, led to a negotiated withdrawal of the Teutonic Knights from East Pomerania. Finally, Casimir agreed to pay tribute to the Golden Horde to avoid their frequent raids into Poland. As a result of Poland's growing power and its cordial relations with the Mongols, several Masovian princes in Russia declared themselves Casimir's vassals in 1351 and 1353.
Casimir wedded princesses from Lithuania, Germany, and Silesia - each helping secure peaceful relations with their homelands. Although he had four wives and several mistresses, Casimir had five daughters but no legitimate male heir. While Casimir was to arrange dynastic marriages for several of his daughters which further strengthened Poland's position, the lack of a son threatened unrest and war should he die. To provide a clear line of succession, in his last years Casimir named his nephew, Louis of Hungary, son of Elisabeth, as his heir. Louis was proclaimed king of Poland upon Casimir's death in 1370.
Judgment of History
It can be said that Casimir is viewed in history as an ideal medieval king - noble, prudent, diplomatic and capable of delegating authority when necessary. Although some of the territories were lost over the next century, by his death Casimir III had increased Poland's land to approximately 90,000 square miles (233,000 km2) from 50,000 in 1333 AD. Casimir showed great concern for the welfare of his people and his choices as king clearly reflect his efforts to improve the standing of Poland. By forming dependable alliances, aggressively pursuing domestic reforms, and avoiding needless conflicts, Casimir the Great truly earned his given title.
- Polish nationalists claim that Casimir the Great was the "peasants' king." A Polish proverb states that Casimir III found Poland built of wood and left her built in stone.
- Casimir III's great-niece, Jadwiga, is the Polish leader in Civilization VI, available as DLC.
|Codename||Quote (English translation)||Quote (Polish)||Notes|
|Attacked||My armies will grind you to dust!||Moje armie zetrą Cię w proch!|
|Declares War||I have decided to end you!||Postanowiłem z tobą skończyć!|
|Defeated||Celebrate your victory well...it might be your last one.||Naciesz się swoim zwycięstwem... może być twoim ostatnim.|
|Hate Hello||What are you looking for here?||Czego tu szukasz?|
|Hate Let's Hear It 01||What are you doing here?||Co tutaj robisz?||It sounds more like a HateHello line.|
|Hate Let's Hear It 02||You again!||Znowu ty!|
|Hate Let's Hear It 03||What do you want?||Czego chcesz?|
|Hate No 01||You must be joking.||Chyba żartujesz.|
|Hate No 02||A hundred times, no!||Po stokroć nie!|
|Hate No 03||You want to mock me?||Chcesz ze mnie zadrwić?|
|Hate Yes 01||<very annoyed tone> So be it.||Niech będzie.|
|Hate Yes 02||It seems I don't have a choice.||Skoro nie mam wyboru...||Roughly translates to "If I must..."|
|Hate Yes 03||<very annoyed tone> As you wish.||Jak sobie życzysz.|
|Intro||I, Casimir the Great, welcome you to the lands of the Great Kingdom of Poland.||Ja, Kazimierz Wielki, witam Cię na ziemiach Wielkiego Królestwa Polskiego.|
|Neutral Hello||I salute you.||Pozdrawiam cię.|
|Neutral Let's Hear It 01||I'm listening.||Słucham?||Roughly translates to "Yes (what is it)?"|
|Neutral Let's Hear It 02||Go on.||Mów dalej.|
|Neutral Let's Hear It 03||I'm all ears.||Zamieniam się w słuch.|
|Neutral No 01||No.||Nie.|
|Neutral No 02||Absolutely not!||Absolutnie nie!|
|Neutral No 03||It's unacceptable.||To niedopuszczalne.|
|Neutral Yes 01||Alright.||W porządku.|
|Neutral Yes 02||Good.||Dobrze.||The tone he uses here implies that he's really bored and being patronizing.|
|Neutral Yes 03||I agree||Zgadzam się.|
|Peaceful||Think twice before you disregard/underestimate Poland again.||Dobrze się zastanów, nim znów zlekceważysz Polskę.|
|Request||How do you like my offer?||Jak ci się podoba moja oferta?|
All hail noble King Casimir the Great, protector and sovereign of the Kingdom of Poland. You ascended to the throne during a time of great turmoil, with the nation's economy in shambles and its people demoralized by the wars of your predecessor. And yet, your reign marked the beginning of a new era, with affluence and security afforded only by way of your careful governance. Among your most notable achievements, the code of laws you established gave legal authority to many of the accepted customs of the time, strengthening the nation.
Honored king Casimir, the people have long admired the steady hand of governance you wield. Can you return your kingdom and its subjects to a golden age of prosperity? Will you conquer all those who oppose you, or strive for peaceful relations? Can you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?
|Civilization V Leaders |
|Ahmad al-Mansur • Alexander • Ashurbanipal • Askia • Attila • Augustus Caesar • Bismarck • Boudicca • Casimir III • Catherine • Darius I • Dido • Elizabeth • Enrico Dandolo • Gajah Mada • Gandhi • Genghis Khan1 • Gustavus Adolphus • Haile Selassie • Harald Bluetooth1 • Harun al-Rashid • Hiawatha • Isabella1 • Kamehameha1 • Maria I • Maria Theresa • Montezuma • Napoleon • Nebuchadnezzar II1 • Oda Nobunaga • Pacal • Pachacuti1 • Pedro II • Pocatello • Ramesses II • Ramkhamhaeng • Sejong1 • Shaka • Suleiman • Theodora • Washington • William • Wu Zetian|
|1 Requires a DLC|