The Georgians' civilization ability is Strength in Unity, which allows them to receive Era Score bonuses for the Dedications they make at the beginning of Golden and Heroic Ages, and grants them extra Production towards walls. Their unique unit is the Khevsur (which replaces the Man-At-Arms), and their unique building is the Tsikhe (which replaces the Renaissance Walls).
In the Dramatic Ages game mode, the Georgians' civilization ability functions differently. They still receive their Production bonus toward walls, but in a Golden Age, they receive an additional Wildcard slot in their government and can use Dark Age policy cards.
- 1 Strategy
- 1.1 Strength in Unity
- 1.2 Glory of the World, Kingdom and Faith
- 1.3 Khevsur
- 1.4 Tsikhe
- 1.5 Victory Types
- 1.6 Counter Strategy
- 2 Civilopedia entry
- 3 Cities
- 4 Citizens
- 5 Trivia
- 6 Gallery
- 7 Videos
- 8 Related achievements
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Starting bias: None
Upon the release of Rise and Fall, Georgia became the butt of many jokes in the community since the civilization was hilariously underpowered. However, through many patches, tweaks, direct and indirect buffs, Georgia (especially in Gathering Storm) is now quite a solid civilization who can turn every city she has into impenetrable fortresses while racing towards a Religious, Cultural, or Diplomatic Victory.
Strength in Unity
Extra Era Score when in Golden and Heroic Ages
This aspect of the Georgian civilization ability provides them an unmatched ability to chain multiple Golden Ages. In addition to being good road maps for each era, Golden Age Dedications normally provide powerful empire-wide benefits that can affect city development, espionage, expansion, exploration, military, or basic yields, but they do not provide extra sources of Era Score like Normal Age and Dark Age Dedications. This, coupled with the fact that previous Golden Ages will raise the Era Score threshold for subsequent Golden Ages, makes it incredibly tough for a civilization to stay in a Golden Age that lasts multiple eras, except for a strong domination civilization who is currently rolling over everyone. In short, this ability gives Georgia a useful and, most importantly, reliably repeatable source of Era Score that comes with the Golden Age Dedications.
The possible Dedications are listed in the table below.
|Dedication||Era Score Source||Golden Age Bonus||Availability|
|Gain +1 Era Score when you trigger a Eureka, and when constructing a building which provides Science.||Eurekas provide an additional 10% of Technology costs. Commercial Hubs and Harbors provide Science equal to their Gold bonus.||Classical - Medieval|
Pen, Brush and Voice
|Gain +1 Era Score when you trigger an Inspiration, and when you construct a building with a Great Work slot.||Inspirations provide an additional 10% of Civic costs. +1 Culture per Specialty District for each city.||Classical - Medieval|
|Gain +1 Era Score each time you construct a Specialty District.||+2 Movement for Builders. Civilian Units may be purchased with Faith. Settlers and Builders' Purchases are 30% cheaper.||Classical - Renaissance|
Exodus of the Evangelists
|Gain +2 Era Score when you convert a city to your religion for the first time.||+2 Movement for Missionaries, Apostles and Inquisitors; newly-trained ones receive +2 Charges. +4 Great Prophet points per turn.||Classical - Renaissance|
Hic Sunt Dracones
|Gain +3 Era Score when you discover a new continent or Natural Wonder. +1 Era Score when you kill a non-Barbarian naval unit.||Cities settled on a continent different than your Capital's gain +3 Population and +2 Loyalty per turn. Naval and Embarked units gain +2 Movement.||Renaissance - Modern|
Reform the Coinage
|Gain +1 Era Score each time you successfully complete a Trade Route.||Your Traders cannot be Plundered. International Trade Routes provide +3 Gold per specialty District in the foreign city.||Renaissance - Modern|
Heartbeat of Steam
|Gain +2 Era Score for each Industrial or later building constructed.||+10% Production toward Industrial Era and later wonders. Campus district's Science adjacency bonus provides Production as well.||Industrial - Modern|
|Gain +1 Era Score each time you kill a non-Barbarian Corps in combat and +2 Era Score each time you kill a non-Barbarian Army in combat.||Unlocks a special Casus Belli which gives 75% less warmonger penalties than formal war and can be used immediately after Denouncing the target. +15% Production towards military units.||Industrial - Information|
Bodyguard of Lies
|Gain +1 Era Score for each successful offensive operation.||Spies take no time to establish presence in an enemy city. Time to complete all offensive spy operations reduced by 25%.||Atomic - Future|
Wish You Were Here
|Gain +1 Era Score for each Artifact extracted.||Cities with Governors receive 50% Tourism from World Wonders. +100% Tourism to all National Parks.||Modern - Future|
Sky and Stars
|Gaining Great People and constructing Aerodrome buildings||Unlocks the Eurekas for Advanced Flight, Nuclear Fission, and Rocketry if in the Atomic Era. If in the Information Era the Eurekas for Satellites, Robotics, Nuclear Fusion, and Nanotechnology are unlocked. +100% XP earned for all Air Units.
Unlocks the Eurekas for Satellites, Nuclear Fusion, and Nanotechnology if in the Information Era. When chosen in the Future Era the Eurekas for Smart Materials, Predictive Systems, and Offworld Mission are unlocked. +100% XP earned for all Air Units. Aluminum mines accumulate +2 more resources per turn.
|Atomic - Future|
|Gain +1 Era Score each time you kill a non-Barbarian unit with a Giant Death Robot.||Gain a Giant Death Robot in your capital. Receive 3 Uranium per turn. Uranium mines accumulate +1 more resource per turn.||Future|
In the early game, the best Dedication for Georgia is clearly either Exodus of the Evangelists or Monumentality. However, in the early Classical Era, you probably do not generate enough Faith to fully take advantage of either of these Dedications, so it is recommended that you go into a Dark Classical Era to prepare for a Heroic Medieval Era, when you can go and truly make the most of these two Dedications. Considering that a Heroic Age for Georgia gives them three additional sources of Era Score, this will almost always guarantee a Golden Renaissance Era as well. Later into the game when the prospect of a Religious Victory is getting harder due to the sheer number of cities other civilizations have, you need to quickly transition to a Diplomatic Victory or a Cultural Victory. Reform the Coinage can give you a huge amount of Gold for a Diplomatic Victory, and Wish You Were Here is powerful for a Cultural Victory, so choose accordingly. Heartbeat of Steam and Bodyguard of Lies are two generalist Dedications that are helpful to all victory conditions, so they can also come in handy if needed.
The downside of this ability is that it makes Normal Ages feel extra painful. Normally, even a Dark Age is a lot more useful than a Normal Age, since you then have access to an array of powerful Dark Age policy cards, while you do not get anything out of a Normal Age. As long as your empire is not too wide, managing Loyalty in a Dark Age is totally doable. If you fall into a Normal Age as Georgia, it means you will go 40-60 turns without having your civilization ability active, while a Dark Age can help set up for future eras, so avoid Normal Ages as much as you can. You can also attempt to build the Mahabodhi Temple, the Potala Palace, and the Taj Mahal, since they complement Georgia very well and Wonders themselves are excellent sources of Era Score. Be careful with the Taj Mahal, though, which can help you prolong your Golden Ages but also make it harder to strategically earn Dark Ages. By no means is this ability enough for you to stay golden for the entire game, so you will have to fall into a Dark Age at some point in the midgame. For the reason mentioned above, it is most likely your Industrial Era, since this era follows your two successive Golden Ages. Picking Reform the Coinage as a Dedication for the Dark Industrial Era seems reasonable, as this is the easiest one to earn Era Score out of.
Considering Georgia's gameplay revolves heavily around city-states and Protectorate Wars, below are a few repeatable sources of Era Score that relate to city-state diplomacy and warfare that Georgia can focus on:
- Becoming the first Suzerain of a city-state before the Renaissance Era grants 2 Era Score.
- Making the enemy's levied troops stand down by matching or exceeding the number of Envoys in that city-state grants 2 Era Score.
- Making peace with a hostile city-state by matching or exceeding the number of Envoys its current Suzerain has.
- Levying a city-state's troops within striking distance of an enemy civilization grants 2 Era Score.
- Converting a city of another civilization (or city-state) while at war with them grants 3 Era Score.
- Killing a unit with a unit in formation with a Great General or a Great Admiral (can only be done once per Great General or Great Admiral) grants 2 Era Score.
- Killing an enemy Corps/Army or Fleet/Armada with a unit grants 1 Era Score.
- Killing a unit that has at least 2 more Promotions than your unit grants 3 Era Score.
Extra Production towards Walls
To fully understand how walls function, please review the behind-the-scene mechanics of walls and city combat here.
This newly added ability, combined with the buffs to the Tsikhe, helps Georgia turn all her cities into impenetrable fortresses. Walls are undoubtedly important, but a lot of players choose to forgo these buildings to invest time and Production into other kinds of infrastructure and only build walls when a war is declared upon them. However, this reactive playstyle can spell doom for your empire if the enemy is well-prepared with their invasion. With Georgia, Walls are so cheap (especially when you run Limes for a whopping 150% Production bonus) that you almost never need to contemplate whether or not to build them. Of course, this bonus also has an obvious synergy with your unique building. The Tsikhe, after numerous changes, is by no means an underwhelming building that should be built only once for the Era Score. Every city with fully upgraded Walls (Ancient Walls, Medieval Walls, and Tsikhe) will earn 6 Tourism after Conservation is researched, boosted to 9 Tourism in Golden Ages. Considering that Georgia is a religious civilization with incentives to build Holy Sites en masse and will have a good Faith generation, a Cultural Victory is a good backup for your diplomatic path when the window of a Religious Victory closes.
After the change to Monarchy in the February 2021 Update, it feels like this government is tailored specifically to satisfy every need Georgia may have. Besides the fact that it now has high flexibility due to its 2 Wildcard policy slots, Monarchy provides Housing from Walls and Diplomatic Favor from Renaissance Walls, and boosts Envoy generation dramatically. Although Theocracy is great for every civilization with religious tendencies, Monarchy benefits Georgia way more in the long run.
Glory of the World, Kingdom and Faith
Doubled Envoys when sent to a city-state of her majority Religion
Aside from boosting their Era Score, the Georgians have two overarching priorities under Tamar: founding a religion and spreading it to city-states. They should research Astrology early on to construct a Holy Site and a Shrine while sending Scouts to explore the map. Considering that Georgia under Tamar has no upper hand in founding a religion compared any other civilization, this has to be prioritized from the very beginning of the game. They should hold on to their Envoys until they've founded a religion, at which point they should use their Missionaries and Apostles to convert every city-state they meet and spread out their Envoys to attain Suzerainty with as many of them as possible. With Diplomatic League slotted, the first Envoy sent to a city-state of Tamar's majority religion will turn into 3, possibly granting her immediate Suzerainty over the city-state and some Era Score. Tamar is the only leader who focuses heavily on spreading her religion to city-states, which means she is the only one who should take the Religious Unity Founder Belief every single game - if a city-state's first quest is to convert them to her religion, then completing the quest after adopting this belief will yield 4 Envoys. Also, remember that this ability only works if Georgia has a majority religion, so founding one for yourself is not enough - you have to make sure your Religion is established in at least 50% of your cities.
The Gold, Faith, Science, Culture, and Production bonuses Georgia receives from attaining Suzerainty will make their cities extremely prosperous and productive (especially if they have the right kinds of Districts and buildings). However, since they have to convert city-states instead of focusing their Faith on converting other major civilizations like other religious civilizations can, they need to generate even more Faith than usual if they want to win a Religious Victory. In Gathering Storm, they have a good incentive to adopt Choral Music, Holy Order, Mosque, and Tithe/Pilgrimage as their beliefs and use their massive amounts of Faith to purchase Rock Bands en masse, especially if the game lasts so long that winning a Religious Victory becomes impractical.
Slotting the Merchant Confederation policy card is an essential boost in Georgia's continued prosperity. With it and cards that boost Envoy generation like Charismatic Leader, Diplomatic League, Gunboat Diplomacy, and Containment, they will have a steady and scaling Gold income for the rest of the game. Again, Monarchy fits Georgia like a bespoke suit: it provides faster Envoy generation, and extra Housing and Diplomatic Favor from their walls. If you are close to a Religious Victory and want to finish off the game on a religious note, Theocracy may be a better choice, but in any other situations, Monarchy just gives Georgia a lot more.
Bonus Faith from defeated units
Similar to Gorgo's ability, Tamar earns Faith on kills. Compared to the extra Faith when declaring a Protectorate War she used to have before the April 2021 Update, this is a lot less and phases out of relevance pretty quickly, considering Georgia is a civilization that gears towards a religious and diplomatic victory. However, it does have at least 2 advantages over the old ability:
- In terms of reliability, this ability is guaranteed to come into play every game. Even when Protectorate War is one of the easier casus belli to satisfy, that is not always the case in every game. However, Faith on kills is something you can benefit from every game, and it is an ability that is completely under your control.
- This ability can guarantee you a very fast pantheon by killing barbarians. You need 25 Faith for a pantheon, which is equivalent to killing a Scout, a Warrior and clearing the barbarian outpost by killing the guarding Spearman. Getting the first or second pick of pantheon is a huge advantage for a civilization with religious tendencies like Georgia.
The most efficient way to make use of the Khevsur is to buy it with Faith when you choose to build Grand Master's Chapel and adopt Theocracy as your government. However, since Georgia's Faith generation power is quite restricted and extra Faith from the Tsikhe does not come into play until the next era (which happens to be when the Khevsur becomes obsolete), it is very hard to use this unit within its limited time frame. Moreover, since you can decide only where you settle and not where your opponents do, the Combat Strength bonus when fighting in Hills will most likely benefit you only on defense. When Georgia is under attack, a Khevsur defending on a Hills tile can have the same Combat Strength as a Musketman, and it exerts zone of control on all nearby tiles. Whether for offense or defense, the Khevsur is commonly used in combination with the Oligarchy government, or the Oligarchic Legacy Wildcard policy.
In Gathering Storm, this unit receives two indirect buffs. First, with Knights costing 40 Production more (standing at 220 Production per Knight), these units become much more useful, since their Combat Strength is situationally on par with that of Knights, and they are a much more economical choice. Second, Military Tactics is no longer a leaf technology, meaning you actually need to research it in order to move on to other technologies. In Vanilla and Rise and Fall, this is not the case, as very often, civilizations can skip this technology completely, especially when they have no intention to go on a conquest, and can always unlock better units somewhere else for defensive purposes. As a result, the Khevsur often gets left in the dust, since unless 4 extra Era Score can mean a difference in terms of Ages, Science is generally worth being invested elsewhere. This major change brought by Gathering Storm revitalizes these units, as now they become much more incorporated into the grand strategy of their respective civilization. The April 2021 Update gives it a further buff by introducing the Man-At-Arms, a new standard unit that the Khevsur now replaces. This means if your treasury is doing well, you can prepare for the arrival of your unique unit by training Swordsmen and upgrade them. However, considering the Khevsur is most likely a defensive unit, and it is quite difficult to have a game with Georgia where your Gold income is abundant enough to pull this off, this is rarely the way to go. If you want to go to war using this unit, build the Grand Master's Chapel, purchase Khevsurs with Faith and they will pay themselves in Faith thanks to Tamar's Faith-on-kills ability
Unlike Civilization V, the site of the battle in Civilization VI is actually the tile of the defender, not the attacker. Therefore, similar to other bonuses that grant extra Combat Strength when "fighting on" certain terrain, the Khevsur will receive extra Combat Strength when it attacks a unit standing on Hills, regardless of where the Khevsur stands. Also, the Khevsur will receive extra Combat Strength on defense if it gets attacked while standing on Hills.
After numerous buffs, the Tsikhe has been transformed from a ridiculously underwhelming building into a safeguard that dissuades even the most bloodthirsty warlords from invading Georgia. It now provides twice the outer defense of the standard Renaissance Walls, turning Georgian cities into impenetrable fortresses. The latest buff towards Georgia's civilization ability (+50% Production towards walls) makes this building even more potent. Moreover, it plays strongly to the Georgian unique ability of chaining multiple Golden Ages. Considering that the Tsikhe is built in the City Center (meaning that it can be built in every city), combined with Tamar's leader ability, you are looking at a significant Faith and Tourism output as long as you can continue your Golden Ages. After the general buff towards the Renaissance Walls that make them immune to Siege Towers and Battering Rams, the Tsikhe is so tanky that it can withstand even rounds of Bombards. However, considering that this is the only piece of unique infrastructure that can be rendered obsolete with technological research, make sure you delay researching Steel until you build your Tsikhe in every city. With its boosted Faith and Tourism output in Golden Ages, this building can contribute meaningfully to a Cultural Victory, if you can make the best out of your civilization ability to chain Golden Ages.
Valletta's Suzerain bonus has excellent synergy with Georgia, since it allows you to instantly purchase walls and other City Center buildings with your massive Faith income rather than dedicating Production and Turns toward building them. If Valletta isn't present in a game under the Gathering Storm ruleset, you can build your Tsikhe with maximum efficiency by slotting Limes and having an active Urban Development Treaty (a World Congress resolution) for City Center buildings. These, when combined with your civilization ability, will yield a 250% Production bonus.
Conversely, Akkad's Suzerain bonus will render your Tsikhe (and all other walls) useless against melee and anti-cavalry units' attacks. If Akkad is in the game, do your best to deprive your opponents of its bonus, or even conquer it if its location makes doing so feasible.
Depending on which Dedications they choose each era and which districts they focus on building, the Georgians can potentially try for any kind of victory. Going for a Religious Victory, however, is the easiest path for them to follow, and the best way to take advantage of Tamar's leader ability. Since Georgia most likely focuses on having a good Faith output, the Golden Age Tourism bonus from their Tsikhe and extra Diplomatic Favor from close relations with city-states will also help them pursue either a Cultural or Diplomatic Victory. Kilwa Kisiwani, the Országház, the Statue of Liberty, and the Potala Palace are all helpful wonders if the latter is their victory of choice, and the Mahabodhi Temple should always be high on Georgia's agenda to support them on both the religious and diplomatic paths.
To win, Georgia needs two things: Golden Ages and city-states. To defeat them, therefore, it is best to try and deny them Suzerainties and Era Score. If encountering them in the Ancient Era, try to beat them to Tribal Villages and Barbarian camps. Strength in Unity only provides its full benefits if Georgia is already experiencing a Golden Age, so an early failure to obtain one could inhibit their potential for a long period of the game. Additionally, if you have a religion, spread it to city-states to prevent Georgia from snatching every Suzerainty out from under you.
Akkad's Suzerainty bonus allows your melee and anti-cavalry units to deal full damage to walls. When equipped with such power, sieging against the Tsikhe will become much simpler. Valletta is also another useful city-state you would want to deny from Georgia, especially when you are not in position to conquer them, since it synergizes too well with the Tsikhe.
The Kingdom of Georgia, long considered the Golden Age of the Georgian people, existed for nearly 500 years at the crossroads of Central Asia. A bastion of Christianity, Georgia developed a distinctive, brilliant literary culture and art, and their unique alphabet is still used today. It was a diplomatic player in the affairs of the Holy Lands and Rus, an important ally of the Byzantine Empire, and the protector of a coterie of vassal states.
The rise of the Kingdom of Georgia is inextricable from the rise of the Bagrationi dynasty, one of the oldest and longest-lasting royal families of Christendom. The Bagrationi claim descent from King David of Israel (their coat of arms features both the sling and harp), through a descendant named Bagrat. Their family name has been associated with rulers of Caucasian Iberia since at least the 6th Century. As the Sassanid Persian and Abbasid empires waned in power, the Bagrationi gained territory until they formed the kingdom of Tao-Klarjeti, and Bagrat III was able to incorporate the Kingdom of Abkhazia into his holdings near the end of the 9th Century.
What followed was a series of political unifications and military campaigns against the Seljuks, conducted by Bagrationi kings, including David IV, the Builder. Wisely, the successor to the king would often serve as co-regent prior to ascending to the throne, giving both Demetrius I and Tamar practical experience in serving as monarch before having to take on the job full-time.
But the monarch did not always sit easily on the throne. A strong noble class would occasionally break out into revolt, or plot to unseat the ruler, and though these were often unsuccessful, the nobles could curtail the power of the monarch, or force the monarch to accede to their demands. A prime example is Tamar’s acceptance of Rus Prince Yuri as her first husband, at the insistence of the nobility (that story is detailed elsewhere.)
The Kingdom reached its zenith during the reign of Tamar, becoming a true Transcaucasian empire, with a ring of allies and vassals surrounding it. Georgia achieved a flourishing of architecture, painting, and poetry akin to the achievements of Europe during the High Middle Ages. During her reign, the epic poem “The Knight in the Panther’s Skin” was written, a poem so central to Georgian culture that copies were traditionally part of dowries until the 20th century.
Georgian armies were often afield against their Seljuk neighbors, with Georgian generals (including the King Consort) adding territory through conquest. The Empire of Trebizond on the Black Sea was established from territory formerly under Byzantine control. Placed under the rulership of Byzantine princes—who also happened to be Tamar’s relatives—Trebizond represented Georgia asserting itself into the Middle East, especially as the Crusaders lost to Saladin and the Byzantine Empire continued to crumble. Georgia also asserted claims to monasteries in the Holy Land (some of which are still held today), including ones in Jerusalem.
But after the death of Tamar in 1213, Georgia began a period of decline more meteoric than its ascent. The Fourth Crusade resulted in the sack of Constantinople, and with that, Georgia lost the power of its greatest ally. At the same time, the Mongols invaded Georgia, overwhelming the nation and monarch George IV, Tamar’s son. Tamar’s daughter Rusudan assumed the throne, but was unable to drive back the Mongols and was forced to flee to Western Georgia, leaving the Eastern portion under Mongol control. Anti-Mongol uprisings defined the next few generations, resulting in widespread destruction of the countryside.
Eventually the power of the Khans weakened, and Georgian monarchs were able to regain some of their old glory under the George V, the Brilliant. George V was able to reconquer Georgian territory, stopped the payment of tribute to the Mongols, and established diplomatic ties with Byzantium, Genoa, and Venice. But this flourishing was short-lived. Georgian soldiers returning from campaign brought the Black Death with them, killing millions in Georgia just as it had throughout the rest of Europe and the Middle East.
Weakened by conquest and plague, Georgia was essentially prostrate when Timur began his campaigns of conquest in 1386. Less than a century later, Georgia would dissolve on the death of George VIII into three smaller kingdoms, each led by a branch of Bagrationi dynasty. And each branch of that great house was now a rival of the other.
But the legacy of that kingdom would always remain central to Georgian cultural identity. Georgia had been a Christian kingdom, indeed the far Eastern edge of Christendom, and it had been surrounded by religious enemies and opposing cultures. Politically, it had influence in the key theaters of the age. Its armies had conquered in the name of their ruler. Georgia was as much a part of the great cultural flourishing of the High Middle Ages as any kingdom in continental Europe, but with its own unique perspective on issues of chivalry, love, beauty, art, and religion. The surviving monasteries, poems, and artwork bear witness to that glory today.
- Main article: Georgian cities (Civ6)
|Males||Females||Modern males||Modern females|
- The Georgian civilization's symbol is a Jerusalem Cross (large cross and four small crosses), similar to the one that appears on the Georgian flag.
- The Georgian civilization ability is a direct translation of the official Georgian motto.
- Georgia is the only civilization whose ability changes based on the game mode.
- The inclusion of Georgia led by Tamar in Civilization VI: Rise and Fall began as a meme on the CivFanatics Forums between the announcement of Civilization VI and its release. When fans tried to decipher the leaders they saw in a blurry background poster of a First Look video, the "mysterious" female leader standing between Catherine de Medici (France) and Pericles (Greece) was hypothesized to be Tamar of Georgia, since the civilizations on this poster were listed in alphabetical order, and it had not been revealed that a civilization could be led by multiple leaders. The leader was later revealed to be Gorgo, and Tamar of Georgia becomes a joke synonymous with wild, long-shot hypotheses regarding civilization or leader choices that are believed to have low chance of becoming true, considering that before Rise and Fall, Georgia has never been a part of the main Civilization franchise or any of its spinoffs.
Radiant Deeds, Bright as Sunshine
Win a regular game as Tamar
|Civilization VI Civilizations |
American • Arabian • Australian1 • Aztec • Babylonian1 • Brazilian • Byzantine1 • Canadian • Chinese • Cree • Dutch • Egyptian • English • Ethiopian1 • French • Gallic1 • Georgian • German • Gran Colombian1 • Greek • Hungarian • Incan • Indian • Indonesian1 • Japanese • Khmer1 • Kongolese • Korean • Macedonian1 • Malian • Māori • Mapuche • Mayan1 • Mongolian • Norwegian • Nubian1 • Ottoman • Persian1 • Phoenician • Polish1 • Portuguese1 • Roman • Russian • Scottish • Scythian • Spanish • Sumerian • Swedish • Vietnamese1 • Zulu
|1 Requires a DLC|