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- Limit of one per civilization.
Three buildings can be constructed in a Government Plaza. The player is presented with several choices on what these buildings could be:
Each building tier becomes available only after you adopt the respective tier of government. For example, Tier 1 buildings will become available after you adopt Oligarchy, Classical Republic, or Autocracy; Tier 2 buildings after you adopt Monarchy or another Tier 2 government, etc.
The Government Plaza allows you to construct a variety of buildings that provide bonuses relevant to your playstyle and victory condition of choice. Each time you adopt a more advanced form of government, three new buildings become available, each of which awards a Governor Title and permanent bonuses when built. Remember that the three buildings on each tier are mutually exclusive, so think carefully about your short-term and long-term strategy before deciding which of the three you want.
The Government Plaza is also important as a strategic placement asset! Its bonus to Loyalty makes it ideal to place in frontier cities, close to other empires, so that it could resist their mounting Loyalty pressure in the future. Its lower cost, compared to other districts, makes it possible to build in record time even in newly-found cities; so consider placing your second or third city aggressively close to your neighbor's territory, then build the Plaza immediately to enjoy the Loyalty bonus and start working towards these unique buildings to get their awesome bonuses!
But even more important, the Government Plaza provides a +1 bonus to all adjacent districts' yields (at least to those which benefit from adjacency bonuses)! This makes it a trump card when considering placement of all such districts. Build it two tiles away from the City Center and surround it with specialty districts for maximum effect. This also allows a Spy stationed in the Government Plaza to protect all of the surrounding districts when performing a Counterspy mission.
While a government may exist in the hearts and minds and consent of the governed, the actual execution of government requires desks to work on, archives to store records, and meeting rooms to discuss the affairs of state. It helps if the government can set aside space somewhere for dedicated scribes, civil servants, sinecure holders, and politicos to work efficiently, so that the matters of state can be conducted in a timely way. Throughout history, many civilizations have consolidated their bureaucracies in central areas, creating Government Plazas with clustered office dedicated to governance. Westminster in London, or the Kremlin in Moscow, or Eixo Monumental in Brazil might all be considered examples of the Government Plaza.