- "I am Dom João, by the grace of God, King of Portugal and of Algarves, and of lands overseas, in Africa, lord of Guinea, and lord of the conquest and exploration of, and trade with, Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and India."
João III (7 June 1502 – 11 June 1557), also known as the Pious, was King of Portugal from 13 December 1521 until his death. He is known for his expansion of the Portuguese Empire, starting the colonization of Brazil and establishing new trading posts in Africa, India, China, Japan and Southeast Asia, earning him the epithet of Grocer King. He leads the Portuguese in Civilization VI.
João III, you stand firm in your beliefs and guide others to them. As you spread your religion and your trade networks beyond your shores, bring prosperity back to your people, so that they may experience new ways of being unlike any seen before.
A successful Portuguese victory will depend upon building vast trade networks and exploiting coastal tiles. Bear in mind that, for Portugal, international Trade Routes are limited to those that pass over water, so João will want to build his cities along the coast to maximize potential trading spots. Further, coastal cities can take full advantage of the Navigation School, giving extra Production towards naval units, extra Science for coast and lake tiles, and extra Great Admiral points. Portugal will want to explore the map early to find future sites for Portugal’s Unique Infrastructure, the Feitoria, built by Portugal’s Unique Unit, the Nau. Portugal can use its trading profits to fuel any kind of win – steer clear of wars, though; those ports need to stay open for business!
Agenda-based Approval: Ah, yes. You and I both know the sweet melancholy of the sea. (Ah, sim. Nós ambos conhecemos o doce humor merencório do mar. - lit. "Ah, yes. We both know the sweet melancholic humour of the sea.")
Agenda-based Disapproval: How can you stand to sit on your own shores and not look beyond? (Como podes ficar quedo da vossa própria terra e não olhar mais além? - lit. "How can you stand still on your own land and not look further beyond?")
[Note: The voice actor mispronounces some words here. The correct phrasing is podeis (formal "you"), not podes (informal "you"); and quedo na ("stand still in"), not quedo da.]
Attacked: What have I done to offend you so? Oh well, it is too late to fix this mistake. How regrettable, that we must go to war. (Que havemos feito que estejais tão ofendido? Ora, é tarde para corrigir este erro. Lamentamos, mas é mestres fazer a guerra. - lit. "What have we done that we have so greatly offended thee? Well, it is too late to fix this mistake. We regret it, but it is necessary to make war.")
[Note: The voice actor mispronounces some words here. The correct phrase is é mester (a very formal and archaic way to say "it is necessary") and not é mestres.]
Declares War: I have declared war against you. I did not want to do this, but I don't want you around anymore, either. (Havemos declarado guerra contra vós. Posto que nós pese fazer esto, não queremos sofrer a vossa presença. - lit. "We have declared war against thee. Although it pains us to do so, we do not want to endure thy presence.")
[Note: The voice actor mispronounces some words here. The correct phrase is posto que nos pese (a formal way to say "although it pains us") and not posto que nós pese.]
Defeated: I am told that you are the conqueror of Portugal. That may be the reality, but I will never recognize your victory. Begone! (Fizeram-nos saber que sois o conquistador de Portugal. Sem embargo, nós nunca acataremos a vossa vitória. Ide-vos! - lit. "We were made aware that thou art the conqueror of Portugal. Notwithstanding, we shall never comply with thy victory. Begone!")
Greeting: By grace of God, I am João, King of Portugal. I bid you welcome. (Pela graça de Deus, nós somos João, Rei de Portugal. Bem-vindos sejais. - lit. "By the grace of God, we are João, King of Portugal. We bid thee welcome.")
Quote from Civilopedia: I am Dom João, by the grace of God, King of Portugal and of Algarves, and of lands overseas, in Africa, lord of Guinea, and lord of the conquest and exploration of, and trade with, Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and India. (Dom João, per graça de Deus Rei de Portugal e dos Algarves, d'Aquém e d'Além-Mar em África, Senhor de Guiné e da Conquista, Navegação e Comércio de Etiópia, Arábia, Pérsia e da Índia.)
[Note: This title is in the style used by Portuguese sovereigns (including João III) from the time of Vasco da Gama's return from India in 1499 to the beginning of the House of Habsburg's reign.]
Delegation: The empire of the seas brings you spices from the Indies, silks from China, and gold from Africa. And a little bacalao from home.
Rejects Delegation from Player: You are sending gifts to an over-saturated market. We don't want any.
Accepts Player's Declaration of Friendship: It will bring me joy to see your sails on the horizon.
Rejects Player's Declaration of Friendship: It pains me to say no to your friendship, but I must.
Requests Declaration of Friendship: The sea is vast and empty. Shall we be friends?
Player Accepts Declaration of Friendship: Excellent!
Player Rejects Declaration of Friendship: You make me sad.
Accepts Deal: Done! Deals such as these will allow both of us to flourish.
Denounced by Player: Were you sent by the devil to torment me? Why do you sow such discord wherever you go?
Denounces Player: Why must you be such a blight on the world? Your words are lies, your actions offensive, and your claims are, frankly, excessive.
Invitation to Capital: We have a feast of olive oil and codfish, grilled sardines and castella! Will you come and listen to the fado with me?
Invitation to City: Let us exchange stories about our travels, and of our homes.
João III, called “the Colonizer” or perhaps more kindly the “Pious,” was King of Portugal and the Algarves from 1521 to 1556. He was the oldest son of King Manuel I and Maria of Aragon. From birth, his family sought to set him on a course toward excellence – he was given scholars who taught him astronomy, astrology, theology, law, and the humanities, and he was given his own house to manage at the age of twelve. With a few years of practical work under his belt, he started helping his father with real royal duties.
João was set to marry at sixteen and would have married his first cousin Eleanor of Austria, but his father Manuel stepped in and decided he wanted Eleanor for himself. João was understandably offended, and more than a little upset about the whole ordeal. However, following João’s succession in 1521, he made a strategic marriage to Catherine of Austria, who happened to be the younger sister of his ex-fiancé, Eleanor.
Burned in love, he threw himself into his religion. Significantly, João sponsored humanistic approaches to religion such as the Society of Jesus – the Jesuits. Perhaps less nobly, it was under João that the Inquisition finally arrived in Portugal, with predictable results both in suppressing free inquiry (but also ensuring that Portugal would have no Protestant movement). The Inquisition was designed to punish what the church considered to be problematic or blasphemous, including anything related to witchcraft, bigamy (recall João’s contemporary in England, Henry VIII, and his struggles with the church over his complicated love life), literature that went against the church, and sexual deviancy. João (with the Pope’s permission) appointed his brother Cardinal Henry as his Grand Inquisitor and established branches across Portuguese territories. The Inquisition’s influence bled into other parts of Portuguese culture and daily life. These moves earned João the name “the Pious.”
Rather than conquest through battle, João often used diplomacy and arranged advantageous marriages. His sister Isabella was married to Charles V, the King of Spain and the Holy Roman Emperor, and he married his daughter Maria Manuela to King Philip II of Spain. His son Prince João Manuel married Joan of Spain and their son went onto become King Sebastian I. The common trend here – Portugal securing an independent but closely-allied place in Iberia – should be clear.
João found that the Portuguese’s expansive empire was inefficient, fraught with debt and corruption. Initially, he tried to patch the problems by appointing new governors, thinking that better men would yield better results, but the problem was systemic. Also, sometimes the “fired” governors just didn’t leave.
The real impact of João’s reign was in the expansion of his trade networks. Fortified Portuguese trading camps – feitorias – were established in Mombasa, Mozambique, and other parts of Africa, and Portugal acquired Timor and the Maluku Islands in Southeast Asia, Goa and Sri Lanka in South Asia, and a trade outpost in Nagasaki and Macau in East Asia. Further, Portuguese Brazil was, under João, to become a significant colony. These networks were to move spices, sugar, gold, fragrances, and silk across the world. Less nobly, João also trafficked in enslaved people, prompting the Congolese king Mvemba a Nzinga to write João a scathing letter about the activities of Portuguese slave traders.
Towards the end of João’s reign, he had trouble naming an heir. Of his nine children (born to Catherine), only two survived past childhood, and both died before their father. The throne was ultimately left to his grandson, Sebastian, upon his death in 1557.
- João III's diplomacy screen shows Torre de Belém at sunset.
- João III's unique ability is named after the border gates that separated the Portuguese trading port of Macau from China, while his agenda references Prince Henry the Navigator, whose patronage led to the invention of the caravel, the exploration of the western coast of Africa and the beginning of the European Age of Discovery.
- João III carries a scepter similar to the Sceptre of the Armillary, a piece of the Portuguese Crown Jewels.
- Due to a high degree of consanguinity, there is a complex web of relationships between João III and other European leaders in the Civilization franchise, especially with Philip II:
- João's mother, Maria of Aragon, and Philip's paternal grandmother, Joanna of Castile, are both daughters of Isabella, making Isabella João's grandmother and João Philip's first cousin once removed (cousin uncle).
- João's sister, Isabella of Portugal, was Philip's mother, making João Philip's uncle.
- João's eldest daughter, Maria Manuela, was Philip's first wife, making João also Philip's father-in-law.
- Similar to Philip, João, through his grandmother Isabella, descends from Eleanor of Aquitaine.
- João's father and predecessor, Manuel I, was the first cousin and also brother-in-law of João II, the Portuguese leader in Civilization IV.
- Henry the Navigator, the Portuguese leader in Civilization III, was a brother of Edward, João III's great-grandfather.
- João III is known to have received many letters from Mvemba a Nzinga detailing the Kongolese leader's rule. He is mentioned, together with his father Manuel I, in the first sentence of Mvemba a Nzinga's Civilopedia entry.
- Similarly to Kristina and Bà Triệu, João's native name is used rather than his anglicized name ("John").
The Spice Must Flow
Win a regular game as João III.
|Civilization VI Leaders |
Alexander1 • Amanitore1 • Ambiorix1 • Bà Triệu1 • Basil II1 • Catherine de Medici • Chandragupta • Cleopatra • Cyrus1 • Dido • Eleanor of Aquitaine • Frederick Barbarossa • Gandhi • Genghis Khan • Gilgamesh • Gitarja1 • Gorgo • Hammurabi1 • Harald Hardrada • Hojo Tokimune • Jadwiga1 • Jayavarman VII1 • João III1 • John Curtin1 • Kristina • Kublai Khan1 • Kupe • Lady Six Sky1 • Lautaro • Mansa Musa • Matthias Corvinus • Menelik II1 • Montezuma • Mvemba a Nzinga • Pachacuti • Pedro II • Pericles • Peter • Philip II • Poundmaker • Qin Shi Huang • Robert the Bruce • Saladin • Seondeok • Shaka • Simón Bolívar1 • Suleiman • Tamar • Teddy Roosevelt • Tomyris • Trajan • Victoria • Wilfrid Laurier • Wilhelmina
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