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John Adams is a leader of New England in Civilization IV: Colonization.


Lived: October 30, 1735 - July 4, 1826

A diplomat, politician, lawyer and firebrand, John Adams was one of the driving forces of the American Revolution.

Born in 1735 in Massachusetts, Adams trained as a lawyer and rose to a prominent position in the colonial legislature, earning himself a reputation as a staunch opponent of the English. In 1770, however, when a group of British soldiers fired on a mob of unarmed American citizens - the so-called Boston Massacre - Adams was selected to defend the soldiers. While fearing that acting as defense on such a trial would tarnish his reputation, Adams discovered his worries were unfounded. After the trial, his reputation only grew as he became known as a defender of the rights of all men - even the English.

His knowledge of law and history as well as his burning desire to break with England made him a popular voice among those colonists unsatisfied with their second-class status. Adams wrote numerous articles decrying the acts taken by England to restrict the liberties of the unruly colonists. He attended both Continental Congresses, establishing a reputation as a brilliant political thinker. In 1776, when offered the historic opportunity to pen the Declaration of Independence, Adams deferred to Thomas Jefferson, who he saw as better respected by the whole of the Congress.

When it came time for the states to author their own constitutions, Adams' legal sagacity made him a popular mentor among the individual state congresses. In 1777, Adams was sent abroad to Europe in order to help negotiate a favorable peace between England and the colonies, and secured a significant loan from the Dutch in order to aid his newly birthed home-country. In thanks for his impressive work abroad, upon his return to the United States in 1789, Adams was elected the country's first Vice President.

In 1796, George Washington stepped down after his second term and Adams was elected the second President of the United States. His successes in office include narrowly avoiding war with France, increasing the strength of the American navy and appointing John Marshall, the Supreme Court judge responsible for ensuring the independence of the judiciary.

After losing the Presidency in 1800 to Thomas Jefferson, Adams retired from politics. He lived as a private citizen until July 4th, 1826, the fiftieth anniversary of the United States, before he passed away.