- "I believe that there is in Australia today an intense love of country, greater in its expression than has yet been called forth at any previous period in Australia’s history."
John Curtin (8 January 1885 – 5 July 1945) was the 14th Prime Minister of Australia, serving from 1941 to 1945 and dying just before the end of World War II, during which he was instrumental in directing the country's war effort against Japanese aggression in the Pacific. He leads the Australians in Civilization VI.
Australia views the map with a unique eye, looking for areas of high Appeal and open lands for livestock. Settling in lands others do not want allows them to build a strong civ, made even stronger when John Curtin leads them in wars of defense or liberation.
Prime Minister Curtin, you will lead Australia through challenge after challenge, and your people will emerge all the stronger for it. Others will seek friendship for your strength. If these friends prove loyal, your might and protection will carry you far. But stay vigilant, for aggression is not your natural course.
His leader ability is Citadel of Civilization. It provides the Australians with a 100% Production bonus if they have either been the target of a declaration of war in the past 10 turns or liberated a city in the past 20 turns (10 in Gathering Storm).
Australia loves the coasts. Settling there affords them plenty of Housing and high Appeal tiles that they can transform into bonus yields for their Districts. They will want to spread inland from those coastal cities wherever they can find livestock, using their Pasture culture bomb ability on those resources to gain the room needed for adjacent Outback Stations. In the diplomatic sphere, John Curtin's abilities set them up to be the perfect police force. They don't like aggressive civs and will send their units, especially their trusty Diggers, out to repel invaders and liberate cities when possible.
Agenda-based Approval: I commend your perseverance. We share a common interest in protecting those who often cannot protect themselves.
Agenda-based Disapproval: War can only bring us loss. Loss of lives, loss of productivity, loss of our very humanity!
Attacked: We will mobilize every means of resistance to stop this transgression against our nation!
Declares War: After thorough deliberation, Australia finds itself at a crossroads. Prepare yourself, war is upon us.
Defeated: The principles for which we have fought will survive longer than any nation you could ever build.
Greeting: John Curtin, I speak for the people of Australia as their Prime Minister. We seek sympathetic allies in the fight against the hawks of war.
Quote from Civilopedia: I believe that there is in Australia today an intense love of country, greater in its expression than has yet been called forth at any previous period in Australia's history.
[Note: This is an actual John Curtin quote from March 1942.]
Delegation: I've sent a trade delegation to your territories with a small selection of meats contributed by our ranchers. I hope you will receive them with my sincerest thanks.
Accepts Player's Declaration of Friendship: We would gladly recognise the strong friendship between our nations.
Rejects Player's Declaration of Friendship: I hope you'll understand, we just can't commit to any official gestures at this time.
Requests Declaration of Friendship: I believe our friendship is built on a mutual interest in maintaining stability and protecting those in need. I hope you agree.
Player Accepts Declaration of Friendship: I appreciate everything you've done.
Player Rejects Declaration of Friendship: An unwelcome turn.
Denounced by Player: Your slander of Australia and her people will be known far and wide when your enfeebled nation crumbles!
Denounces Player: The reprehensible words and actions you've demonstrated can only lead your people down a path of ignorance and destitution.
Invitation to Capital: I think an exchange of knowledge, the stories of our capitals perhaps, would be a great boon to our budding friendship.
Invitation to City: If you see fit, I'd ask that you visit our nearest city. Perhaps we can tempt you with some roasted macadamia nuts?
The life of John Joseph Curtin might be considered the triumph of the ordinary—that is, if an ordinary person is understood to be a political activist, party leader, and prime minister. He came to be held in high regard by political allies and adversaries alike. This was in no small part due to his guidance of Australia through the chaos of the Second World War, in the face of the greatest threat the young country has yet faced.
John was born to Irish immigrants John and Catherine in January 1885 AD at Creswick, Victoria. John (the elder) worked as a warder at the Pentridge Gaol, soldier, policeman in Creswick, then as a manager in various hotels in Melbourne, Dromana, Macedon, and elsewhere. The family eventually ended up in Brunswick, quite poor. What with all the moving about, John (the younger) had an erratic education, mostly in Catholic schools. Around the age of 13 he left school to help the family finances by taking a job as a copy-boy at the newspaper 'Age' in Creswick, then an office-boy at the 'Rambler,' and a laborer in a pottery works. Finally, in September 1903, the young John landed a job at the princely salary of two pounds per week with the Titan Manufacturing Company. This left him some time free to spend in the public library, where he became engrossed in reading "serious" books and essays on politics.
By 1911, when he was employed as the Secretary for the Timberworkers’ Union, John had read a lot, shed his Catholic faith, joined the local Political Labor Council and the Victorian Socialist Party, gained a reputation as a “Labour-boy orator,” started writing for radical and socialist newspapers, and played with the Brunswick Football Club. In 1917 he married Elsie Needham, the sister of Labour senator Ted Needham, and moved near Perth to become editor for the 'Westralian Worker.' Western Australia must have agreed with him, for he was soon elected president of the Australian Journalists’ Association. But not before he was charged with failure to enlist in the First World War, convicted in absentia to three months imprisonment, and eventually jailed for three days.
After serving as the Australian delegate to the annual conference of the International Labour Organization in Geneva in 1924, the "red-ragger from the east" ran for and won the federal seat of Freemantle in 1928 and again in 1929. Few members have entered the Parliament with more grassroots experience of the working class, but Curtin was miffed when he was not appointed one of the ministers in James Scullin’s administration. Frustrated, morose, alienated and drinking heavily, Curtin considered withdrawing from politics.
Instead, when the much-maligned Scullin resigned as the Labour Party’s leader in 1935, Curtin decided to stand in the election to replace him. His opponent to lead the party was Frank Forde, who had been closely associated with the disastrous economic policies of the Scullin administration. Thus, the left-wing factions and the trade unions backed the untested and inexperienced Curtin—on the promise that he would abstain from alcohol. He defeated Forde by just one vote to become the leader of both the Labour Party and the (Loyal) Opposition in Australia.
Bringing his usual energy to the fractured party, Curtin toured the state and local party centers constantly, and—according to political pundits—his "quiet steadiness and incisive clarity" proved effective in resurrecting Labour’s fortunes. While the Labour Party did make gains, the outbreak of war derailed everyone’s plans. In the wake of Great Britain’s declaration of war on Nazi Germany, the celebrated Australian Prime Minister Robert Menzies promptly announced his country's support for the Commonwealth’s war efforts. Unfortunately for Menzies, his own party withdrew their support while he was away in England. Menzies was forced to resign.
With Japan’s growing saber-rattling a concern to all Australians, Parliament supported Curtin as prime minister—after a series of false starts and unappealing candidates left him the best (but untested) choice. Curtin was sworn in October 1941, at the age of 56 … just in time for a December that saw a renewed Japanese naval offensive throughout the Pacific.
The destruction of the last two British battleships in the South Pacific, the fall of Singapore, and Japanese air raids on northern Australia led to great fear of invasion. Consequently, Curtin realigned Australian interests with the United States, instituted a policy allowing conscripted soldiers to be deployed outside of Australia, and affirmed Australia's dominion status for a greater degree of independence from Great Britain. Though Labour opposed many of his government's military policies, Curtin's progressive social reforms pleased all but the hardliners—work for anyone who wanted it, pensions for those who could not work, and expanded rights for Aboriginals.
For four years of war Curtin navigated the shoals of public morale, military defeats and victories, and cooperation with impatient allies. By all accounts, he did so brilliantly—but it took a toll on his health. Late in April 1945, as the conflict neared its bloody end, his lungs became congested. After several weeks in hospitals, Curtin insisted on returning to work. He died in July, six weeks before the end of the Second World War.
- John Curtin's diplomacy screen shows a house near Uluru in the Australian Outback late in the afternoon.
- John Curtin's leader ability references his speech after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, while his leader agenda references an article he wrote for The Herald after Australia joined World War II.
- Having been born in 1885, John Curtin is the most recently born leader in Civilization VI and its expansions.
A Smashing Victory
Win a regular game as John Curtin
|Civilization VI Leaders |
Alexander1 • Amanitore1 • Ambiorix1 • Bà Triệu1 • Basil II1 • Catherine de Medici • Chandragupta • Cleopatra • Cyrus1 • Dido • Eleanor of Aquitaine • Frederick Barbarossa • Gandhi • Genghis Khan • Gilgamesh • Gitarja1 • Gorgo • Hammurabi1 • Harald Hardrada • Hojo Tokimune • Jadwiga1 • Jayavarman VII1 • João III1 • John Curtin1 • Kristina • Kublai Khan1 • Kupe • Lady Six Sky1 • Lautaro • Mansa Musa • Matthias Corvinus • Menelik II1 • Montezuma • Mvemba a Nzinga • Pachacuti • Pedro II • Pericles • Peter • Philip II • Poundmaker • Qin Shi Huang • Robert the Bruce • Saladin • Seondeok • Shaka • Simón Bolívar1 • Suleiman • Tamar • Teddy Roosevelt • Tomyris • Trajan • Victoria • Wilfrid Laurier • Wilhelmina
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