Non-State Actors allows your Spies to choose any available Promotion when they gain levels. This allows for many strategic possibilities - for example, you can use Demolitions and Rocket Scientist to create a Spy who excels at disrupting other players' Science Victory projects, or Polygraph and Quartermaster to create one who plays a supporting role on the home front.
This policy affects only Spies that are assigned missions or gain levels after it is activated - Spies that either were ready for a promotion or successfully complete a mission they were assigned before it was activated will have three randomly-selected promotions to choose from instead of the entire pool.
The term “plausible deniability” is used to describe espionage actions which may be disavowed by the diplomats and public figures within the state that undertook them. Of these methods, non-state actors are the most common. In this system, the spies of a state provide support to individuals or groups seeking to undermine enemies of the state. The state may (technically) claim not to have undertaken the effort—they just paid someone else to do it. This may include cases where the intelligence agency does not possess the expertise in a new system of subversion but has access to a like-minded group that does. It becomes more difficult for the aggrieved party to bring a united front against the state in this case.