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Range is a property of Ranged Units in Civilization VI. It determines how far away the unit can attack. When Range is 1, the unit can only attack targets on the six tiles that are immediately next to it. With a Range of 2, the unit can attack any of the 18 nearest tiles. Units that have a Range of 3 can cover a total of 36 tiles.
Range is limited by the terrain of the tiles for both the attacking and defending unit. For example, an archer on a plain, firing on a unit also on a plain, with a hill between, will not be able to target the defending unit. Terrain penalties to range accumulate, so an archer on a hill with a forested hill in between it and its target will not be able to attack - the benefit for being on a hill is cancelled by the combined forest and hill.
Terrain penalties to range are hills, forest, and jungle.
When a Ranged Unit uses its ranged attack, it itself is safe from any harm in that battle. This means that the unit or city being attacked cannot do damage to the unit using a ranged attack.