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The Romans are a white civilization in Civilization II. They are led by Caesar (male) and Livia (female), following an Expansionist, Civilized personality.



The Romans are a white civilization, and act first in turn order. A game including the Romans will not involve the Russians or Celts.


The default Roman male leader is Julius Caesar (100–44 BC), a politician and general of the late Republic who conquered Celtic France (Gaul) and invaded Britain in the Gallic Wars. Refusing to relinquish command after the campaign, Caesar led his army into Italy, sparking a civil war against his former ally Pompey the Great that established Caesar as dictator for life. He reformed the calendar, sired a son revered as a god by the Egyptian queen Cleopatra, and developed a cult of personality culminating in appellations of "king" and divine iconography; senators fearing that his concentration of power would destroy the constitutional government assassinated Caesar in 44 BC, provoking further civil wars through which Caesar's nephew and adoptive son Octavian would establish the Roman Empire as Caesar Augustus.

The default female leader is Livia Drusilla (58 BC–AD 29), the daughter and wife of senators opposed to Octavian and his allies after the death of Caesar. Her father committed suicide after the republican defeat at Philippi; her husband joined the failed revolt led by Pompey's son. After Octavian's victory and declaration of a general amnesty, her family returned to Rome, where she was personally introduced and legend says Octavian immediately fell in love. He divorced his wife Scribonia on the day she gave birth to their daughter, and compelled Nero to leave Livia while she was six months pregnant with their second child. Within a week of Drusus's birth, Octavian and Livia were married, with Nero playing the role of the bride's father in their ceremony. They had no children, but Livia assisted with the empire's administration, securing her first son Tiberius as Augustus's successor as Emperor. Her relationship with Tiberius became strained, however, purportedly due to an overbearing personality that led him spend the end of his reign secluded in a palace at Capri. He repeatedly vetoed tributes in her honor and avoided her funeral. Her grandson Claudius eventually restored her official position.


Roman leaders feature two unique government titles: a Despotism Despot is a "Dictator", and a Monarchy Monarch is an "Imperator" (male) or "Imperatrix" (female).


The Roman AI is Expansionist and Civilized: it is neither overtly aggressive nor pacifist, preferring to settle many cities, while prioritizing civic advances for research.



Rome (or its historical descendants) features in the original scenarios provided with Civilization II:

  • The Rise of Rome depicts the late Roman Republic from the 3rd to 1st centuries BC, with the Romans beginning circa their historical position in the midst of the Pyrrhic War.
  • In World War II, Rome's descendant Italy is amalgamated into the Axis, led by Hitler.


The Romans are defined at Line 1 of the @LEADERS section of Rules.txt; their city style is used for Barbarian settlements. Leader portraits are stored in Images 11 (GIFS/220) (male) and 32 (GIFS/241) (female) in mk.dll; their herald file is HRLDROM.AVI.


  • The High Council is dressed as Roman senators during the Ancient era.
  • The Romans feature the longest city list in the game, at 44 entries.

See also[]

Civilizations in Civilization II [edit]
Related pages