Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram - Shah Jahān - was not himself an engineer, but rather the Mughal Emperor of India whose reign saw the greatest extent of Mughal architecture and some of the most defining structures of Mughal India, including the Red Fort of Delhi and the Taj Mahal. He was also a skilled schemer, having put his rivals to death in order to ensure his place on the throne, and pushed the Mughal military to greater and greater heights against his neighbors.
But Shah Jahān is here because of his ability to pull together a team of the finest architects – chief amongst them Ustad Ahmad Lahori - of his day to create true wonders. The Red Fort, built between 1639 and 1648 and named for its distinctive red sandstone, is one of these. The Lāl Qila [Red Fort] stood at the center of Shahjahanabad, which (unsurprisingly, given the name) was Shah Jahān’s capital. As with Shah Jahān’s state, the Red Fort combines Timurid, Persian, and Hindu elements into a syncretic fusion that was later to inspire architecture across northern India and (what is today) Pakistan.
But Shah Jahān’s most famous building is undoubtedly the Taj Mahal. Built as a mausoleum for the Shah’s wife, the building combines the domes, minarets, and artistry that showcases the best of Mughal architecture. It is described elsewhere in this Civilopedia, and, if you are lucky enough, you can construct it yourself.