Some achievements require you to do a series of tasks in order for to unlock them. A good example of this is the Valley of the Time Tombs achievement that requires you to build all wonders. Which ones have been built and which ones do you still need to build? Luckily it's easy to check:
Open your Steam library, find Sid Meier's Civilization: Beyond Earth
Right-click it, select Properties
From the Local Files tab select Browse local files...
In the file browser that opens, find a folder or a shortcut named Logs and open it
In this folder find the file named achievements_debug.log and open it
Now, this file lists all of your achievement progress. A part of it may look something like this:
This would tell you that you have built the Tectonic Anvil zero times, so it's the wonder you are still missing. The other parts of the file are pretty much self-explanatory too when you know what you are looking for.
A reference to a line from the 1923 H.G. Wells novel Men Like Gods, which described a parallel Earth that was a utopian society.
Aim to Misbehave
Win a game on a Duel Map
Closing words of a speech by Captain Malcolm Reynolds in Serenity.
Beep… Beep…. Beep...
Win a game on Sputnik difficulty.
The achievement icon depicts the Sputnik-1/PS-1, Earth's first artificial satellite, the sole payload of which was a battery-powered two-frequency radio beacon transmitting simple beeps, hence the name.
C'mon you apes, you wanna live forever?
Fully explore the Might virtue tree
A line from the 1959 Heinlein novel Starship Troopers, delivered by one of the eponymous troopers. This line was itself a reference to a famous line uttered in World War I, "C'mon you sons of bitches, you wanna live forever?" The Mobile Infantry (and, indeed, much of the ethos of Starship Troopers) aligns well with the Might virtue.
Chief Extraterrestrial Officer
Win a game as Fielding
This achievement is a pun on the common corporate title of Chief Executive Officer.
A subject taught at Unseen University in Terry Pratchett's Discworld novels.
Kill an enemy spy
This is probably a reference to Firaxis' own expansion pack XCOM: Enemy Within, which introduced intelligence and counterintelligence activities (among other things) to the original XCOM game.
Develop a city to produce more than 100 energy per turn
This achievement title almost certainly makes reference to the command regularly given by Captain Jean-Luc Picard in Star Trek: The Next Generation when activating the transporter.
Father of Nations
Win a game as Barre
Most probably a tribute to African Leader Nélson Mandela, proclamed as Father of African Free and Independent Nations
Win a game on a Skirmish Map.
This is a reference to a line from William Blake's poem, Tyger.
For A Few Dollars More
Unlock All Tier 2 Virtue Synergy Bonuses
This achievement title makes reference to the 1965 Clint Eastwood movie of the same name.
Win a game as Kozlov
A reference to Russian Yuri Gagarin, the first human in outer space.
Game over, man!
One Hit Kill
The achievement title is a quotation from the 1986 James Cameron film Aliens. The line is delivered by Hudson, one of the Colonial Marines.
Win a game on Mercury Difficulty
The title of this achievement is a reference to a transmission made by Scott Carpenter to John Glenn during the launch of Friendship 7, part of Project Mercury.
Grand Galactic Inquisitor
Win at least one game with each leader
The Grand Galactic Inquisitor is a phenomenally obnoxious character on The Venture Bros. who yells "Ignore me!"
Achieve Max Level in Harmony
This is a reference combing the scientific name for humans (Homo sapien) and the word
I'm in the middle of some calibrations
Play with a Mod
A phrase spoken by the character Garrus Vakarian in the video game Mass Effect 2, which achieved memetic status as the character would repeatedly use it to deflect attempts to start a conversation, and was even heavily self-referenced in Mass Effect 3.
I'm On Another Boat
Embark a unit
This achievement makes reference to the Civilization V Steam Achievement I'm on a Boat!, which is a reference to the Lonely Island song.
I've made a lot of special modifications myself
Download a mod
The achievement title is a quotation from Star Wars (specifically, A New Hope), said originally by Han Solo in reference to the Millenium Falcon, his ship.
It's Full of Stars
A line from Arthur C. Clarke's novel 2001: A Space Odyssey. Just as Dave Bowman is being drawn into the Monolith, he exclaims "The thing's hollow — it goes on forever — and — oh my God! — it's full of stars!"
Just Like Voskhod 2
Win game on Taigan map
Voskhod 2 was a Soviet manned space mission.
Light This Candle
Launch an orbital unit
A quote from Alan Shepard, the first American in space, from just before his launch on May 5th, 1961. Reportedly, after repeated delays, Shepard said, "Why don't you fix your little problem and light this candle?" The quotation later appeared in the film The Right Stuff, a film about test pilots including Shepard.
Live Long and Prosper
Fully explore the Prosperity virtue tree
The achievement title is a Vulcan phrase (accompanying a one-handed salute) from the Star Trek franchise.
Logic is the beginning of wisdom
Fully explore the Knowledge virtue tree
The achievement title is a line from the 1991 movie Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country. The line is delivered by Captain Spock to Lieutenant Valeris, and in full, is "Logic is the beginning of wisdom, Valeris, not the end.".
Making Way for a Hyperspace Bypass
Raze 100 Alien nests
A reference to the beginning of Douglas Adams' The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, in which contractors inform Arthur Dent that his home (and the planet Earth) must be demolished to make way for a hyperspace bypass.
Develop a city to produce more than 100 culture per turn
A line from the episode Shindig from the TV series Firefly. The line is delivered by Captain Mal Reynolds to Inara.
Win a game as Kavitha
In Indian religions, Moksha means means emancipation, liberation or release.
Win a game as Bolivar
A line from the Star Trek parody film Galaxy Quest. In full, the line is "Never give up, never surrender!"
No bucks, No Buck Rogers
Fully explore the Industry virtue tree
This achievement's title is a line from the 1983 film The Right Stuff, delivered by Gus Grissom in reference to funding required for the space program.
Once Upon A Time In Space
Unlock All Tier 3 Virtue Synergy Bonuses
"Once upon a time" is a stock phrase used to introduce a narrative of past events, typically in fairy tales and folk tales. It has been used in some form since at least 1380. Once Upon a Time… Space is a French/Japanese animated science fiction TV series from 1982, directed by Albert Barillé.
Order of Lenin
Win a game on Soyuz Difficulty
The Order of Lenin, named after the leader of the Russian October Revolution, was the highest decoration bestowed by the Soviet Union.
Pale Blue Dot
Win a game on a Standard Map
This achievement shares its title with a famous photograph requested and titled by the astronomer Carl Sagan. The image is of Earth, as viewed from the Voyager space probe at a distance of six billion kilometres - a single pale blue dot in a vast expanse of space.
Steal a tech
A reference to the term Patent Pending, used in order to defer copying of an idea.
This achievement's title is a reference to the Media Molecule game LittleBigPlanet.
United Federation of Planets
Win at least one game on each map size and type
The United Federation of Planets is a republic from the Star Trek franchise.
Valley of the Time Tombs
Build all wonders
This achievement's title comes from the Dan Simmons novel Hyperion, where the valley so named contains a collection of (appropriately) wondrous artifacts.
Walk Without Rhythm
Killed Siege Worm
A reference to the Dune universe, where walking without rhythm is necessary in the desert in order to avoid attracting a sandworm, from which the Siege Worms are derived.
We Are Not Alone
Achieve Contact Victory
Though the title of this achievement is often used to make reference to the potential existence of aliens, in the context of other achievement titles, it is likely a reference to the tagline of the 1977 movie Close Encounters of the Third Kind.
What Was Once Only Imagined
Develop a city to produce more than 100 science per turn
The title of this achievement is a popular misquotation of a line from the William Blake work The Marriage of Heaven and Hell. The actual line is "What is now proved was once only imagin'd.".
When Maui Came To This World
Win game on Archipelago Map
This is a reference to Maori mythology.
Win a game on Vostok Difficulty
The name of the achievement is the famous quip by Yuri Gagarin at the takeoff of the Vostok-1 mission, the first manned spaceflight.