The Sumerians' civilization ability is Epic Quest, which provides them with a Tribal Village reward each time they capture a barbarian outpost, and halves the cost of levying city-state units. Their unique unit is the War-Cart, and their unique tile improvement is the Ziggurat.
Strategy[edit | edit source]
As one of the earliest civilizations in history, it is only fitting that Sumer has one of the strongest early games. With both unique components unlocked from the moment you begin the game, Sumer is poised to rush to a lightning-fast Domination Victory.
Epic Quest[edit | edit source]
This ability serves mostly to allow Sumer to focus on its military infrastructure early on. Use War-Carts to scour the map for Barbarian Outposts, which is simple thanks to their high Movement and resistance to the anti-cavalry units that inhabit the Outposts. Tribal Village rewards include free Population to train Settlers and go wide, free Gold to buy what you need, and free Envoys, which tie into the less impactful second part of this ability. If you manage to become the Suzerain of city-state, it may come in handy, but city-state politics should not be your biggest concern in the prime of your rushing time.
Adventures of Enkidu[edit | edit source]
Gilgamesh's ability may seem counterintuitive. After all, what need is there for Joint Wars and Allies when it is so easy to wash away civilizations in a tide of War-Carts? But it is useful in the many cases that circumstances do not permit an early rush and you don't simply choose to restart instead. What's more, in Rise and Fall, this ability is a very proficient producer of Alliance Points, which can be a great boon to yields with international Trade Routes.
Legacy of Enkidu[edit | edit source]
In the Heroes & Legends game mode, Gilgamesh gains a significantly stronger and more versatile ability. As a great hero of myth himself, it is only fitting that other heroes are attracted to Sumer - and attracted they certainly are. Gilgamesh can snap up whichever Heroes suit him with his Production bonus for a further bonus to early conquest, and use them for even longer than usual. Strong Heroes for early domination include Hippolyta, Arthur, and Mulan, whose increased Lifespan will allow her Combat Strength to grow even greater.
War-Cart[edit | edit source]
The War-Cart is superior to the Heavy Chariot in every way - it is stronger, faster, and not only is it available from the start of the game, but it also isn't vulnerable to anti-cavalry units! This makes the Sumerians a terrifying early rusher. A determined player could start building War-Carts from the beginning of the game, and be ready to rush his or her neighbors in the first 40 turns! Since there is no consistently reliable counter to the War-Cart this early in the game, there is very little strategy involved with using it. Thankfully, it's very easy to deter aggression from an AI Sumer, but if you spawn near a human Sumer, there is very little hope for your fledgling civilization.
Ziggurat[edit | edit source]
Ziggurats can allow the Sumerians to become scientific leaders without neglecting their civic development. Moreover, they can be built as soon as the game begins, so the Sumerians can get an early lead in Science and Culture output by founding cities near Rivers and lining their banks with Ziggurats. These improvements can even be built on Tundra and Snow tiles, giving the Sumerians some incentive to settle in these frigid lands if there are Rivers nearby (and possibly making it easier for them to find places to establish National Parks). Once Flight is unlocked, Ziggurats will also provide a boost to Tourism.
Victory Types[edit | edit source]
Push for a Domination Victory as hard as you can in the Ancient and Classical Eras. If you haven't won by then, take stock of your situation, and decide whether to continue on domination or change to a different victory type. If you decide to change, settle as many cities as possible near Rivers and build Ziggurats on every available bit of flatland along their banks. This will boost your Science and Culture output (especially after you discover Natural History), allowing you to discover new technologies quickly and putting you on track for either a Science or Culture Victory later in the game.
Counter Strategy[edit | edit source]
The Gilgamesh AI has one fatal weakness: his agenda. As long as you can Declare Friendship with Gilgamesh, he will accept. Since Sumeria's bonuses are mostly towards a Domination Victory, just constantly Declare Friendship with him and you can keep him in check.
Civilopedia entry[edit | edit source]
Never really a kingdom nor empire, more a collection of city-states with common customs and a sometimes central authority, Sumeria nevertheless is considered the world’s first “civilization.” Kingship (or more precisely, hegemony) came to be conferred by the priesthood, which tended to create successive short-lived dynasties from the rulers of established and influential city-states: Kish, Lagash, Ur, Uruk, Adab and so forth. At some point before 3000 BC, the Sumerians developed a written language (well, a logographic in their proto-literate period), so at least historians have some idea of what they were doing.
From these writings, and archaeological evidence in case there’s any doubt, it seems the Ubaidians were the first civilizing (standards for civilization not being high) force in the region that came to be named Sumer. They drained marshes along the River Euphrates, built mudbrick huts and walls, irrigated fields, developed weaving, leatherwork, masonry and pottery, and a written language. In time, they acquired another trait of civilized societies – the use of slaves, captured in the hill country to the north. Then they built a few towns, generally temple-centered with a central administration of some sort (usually a priest-king with a bunch of elderly advisers). With all this urbanization, Sumerian civilization finally coalesced sometime around the fourth millennia BC.
The evolution of the priest-kings into just plain autocratic kings occurred sometime around 2900 BC and begins the “Dynastic Period” of Sumer, recounted in the lengthy Sumerian King List. A number of dynasties held the kingship of Sumer for several years, and often multiple times (there were, for instance, five dynasties of Uruk and three of Kish). Hegemony over the city-state collective was conferred by the priesthood in holy Nippur. It is likely that the authority of the Sumerian king tended to be limited – except in his own city – but he was tasked with maintaining tranquility throughout Sumer nonetheless.
It appears they didn’t do a very good job. As the various surviving bits of writing and monuments show, the next few hundred years were marked by increasing violence, attested to by the building of high walls (like Gilgamesh did for his city of Uruk) and the disappearance of small villages in southern Mesopotamia. In time, the more influential city-states banded together for purposes of trade and defense. Also, in time, it was inevitable that some city-state would seek to lord it over the others permanently … by force of arms.
First to succeed was the dynasty of Lagash (c. 2500-2270), in the person of Eannatum, who annexed practically all of Sumer – Kish, Uruk, Larsa, and others – as well as reducing to a tribute client the city of Umma, Lagash’s arch-rival. The Lagash kings seemed to have used terror as a matter of state policy; the aptly-labelled Stele of Vultures depicts what happened to enemies of Lagash (it wasn’t nice). Eventually, the kings of Umma overthrew Lagash, conquered Uruk to make it the capital of their realm, which they claimed reached from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean. The Ummans were the last ethnic Sumerians to rule before the Akkadian Sargon the Great swept in.
From this point on, the fates of the non-Semite Sumerians and the Semitic Akkadians are inextricably intertwined. The Akkadian Empire reached its peak c. 2400 BC when Sargon’s superior troops overran most of the city-states they could reach. Bowing to the inevitable (and with Akkadians occupying Nippur that was prudent), the priesthood acknowledged the Akkadian hegemony over Sumer. The Semitic Akkadian language supplanted native Sumerian, which became over time a “literary language.” Akkadian customs mutated into Sumerian customs, and the religions blended into one pantheon.
Everything went smoothly for all concerned (save perhaps the slaves and peasants) until the Akkadian Empire collapsed, ushering in a regional Dark Age that lasted until the rise of the Third Dynasty of Ur around 2112 BC. It was a period of anarchy. Irrigation systems collapsed; fields lay fallow; and the barbarian Guti tribes from the Zagros Mountains swept over Sumer. These Gutians seemed to have had little regard for the niceties of civilization. Having installed themselves as rulers in most of the city-states, they showed no concern for agriculture, written records or public safety. They reputedly had all the Sumerian livestock released to wander freely; coupled with a severe decades-long drought and rocketing grain prices, this led to famine throughout the region.
In the midst of all this, the capital at Akkad was sacked – multiple times – so thoroughly (barbarians are really good at sacking) that its ruins remain undiscovered. Taking advantage of all this confusion, several of the more southerly Sumerian city-states managed to re-establish independent rule. As the Gutians, unable to handle all this domesticity, withdrew, the dynasty in Lagash rose to local prominence yet again. Around 2093 BC or so, the Lagash dynasty – now claiming descent from divinity – was declared by the Nippurian priests to have primacy over all others.
It didn’t last long, though. Within 50 years the second Lagash dynasty was replaced by the third dynasty of Ur, under the kings Ur-Nammu and his son Shulgi. When Utu-Hengal of Uruk (the next dynasty after Lagash) defeated the remnants of the Gutians under their last king Tirigan, Sumer was back. But the fifth Uruk dynasty ended abruptly after seven years (according to the King List) with the ascension of Ur-Nammu. Circumstances are hazy; some historians hypothesize a revolt by Ur, others believe that Nammu was somehow related to Hengal and became king peacefully. Whatever the case, Nammu and his son conquered or coerced all the city-states as far as northern Mesopotamia to take part in the “Sumerian Renaissance.”
The Renaissance saw refinement return, new stelae appear all over the place, religion rebounds after those atheist Guti left, agriculture flourishes again, and that cornerstone of civilization – a code of law – comes in the form of the Code of Ur-Nammu which set out a long list of crimes and prescribed punishments (mostly monetary, although leavened with some executions and limbs chopped off). Nammu also undertook great engineering projects, and art and literary works were sponsored by the wealthy. Developments in architecture and sculpture were especially noteworthy (the Ziggurat of Ur being one such accomplishment). So advanced was this age that it has come to termed Neo-Sumeria by historians just so they can keep track of it.
Shulgi outdid his illustrious father. He took decisive steps to formalize the procedures of his administration centered in the capital of Ur. He is credited with standardizing the bureaucracy, archival documentation, the tax system, and the calendar – all for which modern civilization should thank him. He established a standing army for his realm, putting all those well-documented taxes to work. So impressed was the priesthood that Shulgi was deified while he was still alive, which, unlike the present age, was a very rare honor.
But by the time of his grandson Ibbi-Sin, who ascended to the kingship in 1963 BC, things weren’t so rosy for Sumeria. Over the first twenty years of his reign, repeated raids and invasions by the warlike Amorites brought a growing lack of faith among his subjects in his ability to lead. Elam declared its independence and joined the general raiding of trade caravans and unguarded settlements. Things got worse. Ibbi-Sin fortified the areas around Ur and Nippur, without much effect.
Since the king didn’t seem to be able to defend Sumer, more and more city-states followed Elam’s lead and broke away from the tottering hegemony. The price of grain increased by 60 times the usual; plague ravaged several city-states; the Four Horsemen were abroad in Sumeria. In the last years of Sumeria, Ibbi-Sin governed only his own city-state of Ur. In 1940 BC, an Elamite army along with “wild” tribesmen from the Zagros sacked Ur and took Ibbn-Sin captive. He was taken to Elam and imprisoned, and died shortly thereafter (the cause of his untimely end isn’t recorded).
The glory of Sumer had passed. But its accomplishments – mostly because they were the first – have stood the test of time. The pundit Samuel Noah Kramer lists 39 in his seminal work, History Begins at Sumer, such as...
The Sumerians, farming in a semi-arid land along rivers, were the first to build irrigation ditches, canals and eventually reservoirs. While perhaps not the first to develop writing, they were certainly the most proficient at it – for many centuries, in fact – and they wrote everything down so it could be remembered by future generations. And they were the first to store all this scribbling, in depositories (so, the first “libraries"). In the process, they were also the first to develop all sorts of literary forms: love poetry, heroic tales, animal fables, autobiographies, elegies, and so forth.
What with all this writing, the Sumerians also developed the concept of a written contract (it goes without saying these got stored in the depositories so one could not wiggle out of an agreement), and that boon to finance “credit.” The idea that one only had to initially pay some of the asking price and “owe” the rest certainly spurred the Sumerian economy, if not all that attractive to sellers. They standardized numbers in order that one could keep track of all this. And so payments would be made in an orderly fashion, the Sumerians also were the first to divide the year into months and the day into standard increments.
Additionally, they were the first civilization to put the wheel to good use. Carts had wheels; plows had wheels; chariots had wheels. Trade, farming, and war didn’t take so long anymore. If the Sumerians didn’t invent the wheel (and historians have debated this point ad nauseum), they certainly found lots of uses for it. Too bad they didn’t have many horses.
The list of “firsts” goes on.
In the end, though, it was their lack of decent building materials – mudbricks just don’t make very tall or sturdy walls to keep out all those barbarians from the north, south and east – that brought about their downfall. In time, though, the Babylonian and the Assyrian empires would owe their formation to Sumer, the true “cradle of civilization.”
Cities[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Sumerian cities (Civ6)
Citizens[edit | edit source]
|Males||Females||Modern males||Modern females|
Trivia[edit | edit source]
- The Sumerian civilization's symbol is the cuneiform logogram "AN" or "DINGiR" (𒀭), which was either the word for the sky, or a written determinative before the names of any of the Sumerian divinities, respectively.
- The Sumerian civilization ability references the plot of the Epic of Gilgamesh.
- The Sumerian civilization is the only civilization in Civilization VI to lack ambient music. This may be because the Hurrian hymn to Nikkal (the song upon which its main theme is based) is the only extant song from Sumerian culture.
- The first paragraph of the Civilopedia entry for Sumer erroneously refers to it as Sumeria. This mistake is not present in later paragraphs.
Gallery[edit | edit source]
Videos[edit | edit source]
Related achievements[edit | edit source]
Achieve the maximum Alliance level with Gilgamesh
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