Since Warlords, every civilization in Civilization IV has had their own unique building. A unique building, or UB for short, is a building that can only be built by that civilization. It always replaces some other building, not allowing that one to be built at all.

Civilization Unique building Replaces Difference
America Mall Supermarket
Arabian Madrassa Library
  • +2 Culture
  • Can turn 2 Citizens into Priests
Aztec Sacrificial Altar Courthouse
  • -30 Production cost (on normal speed games)
  • Halves anger duration from sacrificing population
Babylonian Garden Colosseum
Byzantine Hippodrome Theatre
  • Cannot turn citizens into artists, unlike in the regular Theatre
  • Happiness from Horses instead of Dye
  • +1 Happiness
  • +1 Happiness per 5% culture rate, instead of per 10%
Carthaginian Cothon Harbor
  • +20 production cost (on normal speed games)
  • +1 trade route
Celts Dun Walls
Chinese Pavilion Theatre
  • +25% culture bonus for the city it's built in
Egyptian Obelisk Monument
  • Can turn 2 Citizens into Priests
England Stock Exchange Bank
Ethiopian Stele Monument
French Salon Observatory
German Assembly Plant Factory
  • Can turn 4 Citizens into Engineers, rather than 2
  • Double construction speed with Coal
Greece Odeon Colosseum
Holy Roman Empire Rathaus Courthouse
  • -75% Maintenance instead of -50%
Incan Terrace Granary
India Mausoleum Jail
  • +2 Happiness
Japanese Shale Plant Coal Plant
  • Doesn't require Coal to build
  • Provides +10% production
Khmer Baray Aqueduct
Korean Seowon University
  • +35% Science rather than +25%
Malinese Mint Forge
Mayan Ball Court Colosseum
  • +2 Happiness
Mongolian Ger Stable
  • +2 experience to new Mounted units
Native America Totem Pole Monument
  • +3 experience to new Archery units
Dutch Dike Levee
  • Can be built by coastal cities as well as cities on rivers
  • +1 Production to water tiles
Ottoman Hammam Aqueduct
  • +2 Happiness
Persian Apothecary Grocer
  • +2 Health
Portuguese Feitoria Customs House
  • +1 Commerce on water tiles
Roman Forum Market
  • +25% Great Person points
Russian Research Institute Laboratory
  • +2 Free Scientist specialists
Spanish Citadel Castle
  • +5 experience points to Siege Units
Sumerian Ziggurat Courthouse
Viking Trading Post Lighthouse
Zulu Ikhanda Barracks
  • +10 Production cost (on normal speed games)
  • -20% Maintenance
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